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MR2085902
Agashe, Amod(1-TX); Stein, William(1-HRV)
Visible evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for modular abelian varieties of analytic rank zero. (English. English summary)
With an appendix by J. Cremona and B. Mazur.
Math. Comp. 74 (2005), no. 249, 455--484 (electronic).
11G40 (11G10)
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References: 44 [-] Reference Citations: 3 Review Citations: 0

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[References]

Note: This list, extracted from the PDF form of the original paper, may contain data conversion errors, almost all limited to the mathematical expressions.
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  2. A. Agashe and W. A. Stein, Appendix to Joan-C. Lario and Ren'e Schoof: Some compu- tations with Hecke rings and deformation rings, to appear in J. Exp. Math. cf. MR1959271 (2004b:11072)
  3. A. Agashe and W.A. Stein, Visibility of Shafarevich-Tate Groups of Abelian Varieties, to appear in J. of Number Theory (2002). cf. MR1939144 (2003h:11070)
  4. A. Agashe and W. A. Stein, The Manin constant, congruence primes, and the modular degree, preprint, (2004). http://modular.math.washington.edu/papers/manin-agashe/
  5. W. Bosma, J. Cannon, and C. Playoust, The Magma algebra system. I. The user lan- guage, J. Symbolic Comput. 24 (1997), no. 3-4, 235--265, Computational algebra and number theory (London, 1993). MR1484478
  6. B.J. Birch, Elliptic curves over Q : A progress report, 1969 Number Theory Institute (Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., Vol. XX, State Univ. New York, Stony Brook, N.Y., 1969), Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, R.I., 1971, pp. 396--400. MR0314845 (47 #3395)
  7. S. Bosch, W. L"utkebohmert, and M. Raynaud, N\'eron models, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990. MR1045822 (91i:14034)
  8. J. W.S. Cassels, " Arithmetic on curves of genus 1 . III. The Tate-\v Safarevi\v c and Selmer groups'', Proc. London Math. Soc. (3) 12 (1962), 259--296. MR0163913 (29 #1212)
  9. J. E. Cremona, Algorithms for modular elliptic curves, second ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997. MR1628193 (99e:11068)
  10. J. E. Cremona and B. Mazur, Visualizing elements in the Shafarevich-Tate group, Ex- periment. Math. 9 (2000), no. 1, 13--28. MR1758797 (2001g:11083)
  11. B. Conrad and W.A. Stein, Component groups of purely toric quotients, Math. Res. Lett. 8 (2001), no. 5--6, 745--766. MR1879817 (2003f:11087)
  12. C. Delaunay, Heuristics on Tate-Shafarevitch groups of elliptic curves defined over Q, Experiment. Math. 10 (2001), no. 2, 191--196. MR1837670 (2003a:11065)
  13. F. Diamond and J. Im, Modular forms and modular curves, Seminar on Fermat's Last Theorem, Providence, RI, 1995, pp. 39--133. MR1357209 (97g:11044)
  14. B. Edixhoven, On the Manin constants of modular elliptic curves, Arithmetic algebraic geometry (Texel, 1989), Birkh"auser Boston, Boston, MA, 1991, pp. 25--39. MR1085254 (92a:11066)
  15. M. Emerton, Optimal quotients of modular Jacobians. Preprint. cf. MR2021024
  16. E.V. Flynn, F. Lepr'evost, E. F. Schaefer, W. A. Stein, M. Stoll, and J. L. Wetherell, Em- pirical evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectures for modular Jacobians of genus 2 curves, Math. Comp. 70 (2001), no. 236, 1675--1697. MR1836926 (2002d:11072)
  17. J-M. Fontaine, Groupes finis commutatifs sur les vecteurs de Witt, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris S'er. A-B 280 (1975), Ai, A1423--A1425. MR0374153 (51 #10353)
  18. B.H. Gross, L -functions at the central critical point, Motives (Seattle, WA, 1991), Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 527--535. MR1265543 (95a:11060)
  19. A. Grothendieck, Le groupe de Brauer. III. Exemples et compl\'ements, Dix Expos'es sur la Cohomologie des Sch'emas, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968, pp. 88--188. MR0244271 (39 #5586c)
  20. A. Grothendieck, Mod`eles de N\'eron et monodromie in Groupes de monodromie en g\'eom\'etrie alg\'ebrique. I, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972, S'eminaire de G'eom'etrie Alg'ebrique du Bois-Marie 1967--1969 (SGA 7 I), Dirig'e par A. Grothendieck. Vol. 288. MR0354656 (50 #7134)
  21. B. Gross and D. Zagier, Heegner points and derivatives of L -series, Invent. Math. 84 (1986), no. 2, 225--320. MR0833192 (87j:11057)
  22. N.M. Katz, Galois properties of torsion points on abelian varieties, Invent. Math. 62 (1981), no. 3, 481--502. MR0604840 (82d:14025)
  23. V.A. Kolyvagin and D.Y. Logachev, Finiteness of the Shafarevich-Tate group and the group of rational points for some modular abelian varieties, Algebra i Analiz 1 (1989), no. 5, 171--196. MR1036843 (91c:11032)
  24. V.A. Kolyvagin and D.Y. Logachev, Finiteness ofover totally real fields, Math. USSR Izvestiya 39 (1992), no. 1, 829--853. MR1137589 (93d:11063)
  25. D.R. Kohel and W. A. Stein, Component Groups of Quotients of J0( N), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium (ANTS-IV), Leiden, Netherlands, July 2--7, 2000 (Berlin), Springer, 2000. MR1850621 (2002h:11051)
  26. S. Lang, Number theory. III, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991, Diophantine geometry. MR1112552 (93a:11048)
  27. H. W. Lenstra, Jr. and F. Oort, Abelian varieties having purely additive reduction, J. Pure Appl. Algebra 36 (1985), no. 3, 281--298. MR0790619 (86e:14020)
  28. Joan-C. Lario and Ren'e Schoof, Some computations with Hecke rings and deformation rings, Experiment. Math. 11 (2002), no. 2, 303--311, with an appendix by Amod Agashe and William Stein. MR1959271 (2004b:11072)
  29. B. Mazur, Rational points of abelian varieties with values in towers of number fields, Invent. Math. 18 (1972), 183--266. MR0444670 (56 #3020)
  30. B. Mazur, Modular curves and the Eisenstein ideal, Inst. Hautes'Etudes Sci. Publ. Math. (1977), no. 47, 33--186 (1978). MR0488287 (80c:14015)
  31. B. Mazur, Rational isogenies of prime degree (with an appendix by D. Goldfeld), Invent. Math. 44 (1978), no. 2, 129--162. MR0482230 (80h:14022)
  32. B. Mazur and J. Tate, Points of order 13 on elliptic curves, Invent. Math. 22 (1973/74), 41--49. MR0347826 (50 #327)
  33. J. S. Milne, Abelian varieties, Arithmetic geometry (Storrs, Conn., 1984), Springer, New York, 1986, pp. 103--150. MR0861974
  34. A. P. Ogg, Rational points on certain elliptic modular curves, Analytic number theory (Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., Vol XXIV, St. Louis Univ., St. Louis, Mo., 1972), Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, R.I., 1973, pp. 221--231. MR0337974 (49 #2743)
  35. B. Poonen and M. Stoll, The Cassels-Tate pairing on polarized abelian varieties, Ann. of Math. (2) 150 (1999), no. 3, 1109--1149. MR1740984 (2000m:11048)
  36. G. Shimura, On the factors of the jacobian variety of a modular function field, J. Math. Soc. Japan 25 (1973), no. 3, 523--544. MR0318162 (47 #6709)
  37. G. Shimura, Introduction to the arithmetic theory of automorphic functions, Prince- ton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1994, Reprint of the 1971 original, Kan Memorial Lectures, 1. MR1291394 (95e:11048)
  38. G. Stevens, Arithmetic on modular curves, Birkh"auser Boston Inc., Boston, Mass., 1982. MR0670070 (87b:11050)
  39. W. A. Stein, Explicit approaches to modular abelian varieties, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley (2000).
  40. W. A. Stein, An introduction to computing modular forms using modular symbols, to appear in an MSRI Proceedings (2002).
  41. W. A. Stein, Shafarevich-Tate groups of nonsquare order, Proceedings of MCAV 2002, Progress of Mathematics (to appear). cf. MR2058655
  42. J. Sturm, On the congruence of modular forms, Number theory (New York, 1984--1985), Springer, Berlin, 1987, pp. 275--280. MR0894516 (88h:11031)
  43. J. Tate, Duality theorems in Galois cohomology over number fields, Proc. Inter- nat. Congr. Mathematicians (Stockholm, 1962), Inst. Mittag-Leffler, Djursholm, 1963, pp. 288--295. MR0175892 (31 #168)
  44. J. Tate, On the conjectures of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer and a geometric analog, S'eminaire Bourbaki, Vol. 9, Soc. Math. France, Paris, 1966 (reprinted in 1995), Exp. No. 306, 415--440. MR1610977

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MR2023296
Coleman, Robert F.(1-CA); Stein, William A.(1-HRV)
Approximation of eigenforms of infinite slope by eigenforms of finite slope.
Geometric aspects of Dwork theory. Vol. I, II, 437--449,
Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, 2004.
11F33
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MR2058655 (2005c:11072)
Stein, William A.(1-HRV)
Shafarevich-Tate groups of nonsquare order. (English. English summary)
Modular curves and abelian varieties, 277--289,
Progr. Math., 224,
Birkh�user, Basel, 2004.
11G10
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In an unguarded moment, P. Swinnerton-Dyer \ref[in Proc. Conf. Local Fields (Driebergen, 1966), 132--157, Springer, Berlin, 1967; MR0230727 (37 \#6287)] wrote that if the group (of everywhere locally trivial KK-torsors under an abelian variety AA over a number field KK) is finite---as it is widely conjectured to be---then a theorem of Tate would imply that its order is a square, i.e. for every prime pp, the exponent of pp in is even.

What the results of J. Tate \ref[in Proc. Internat. Congr. Mathematicians (Stockholm, 1962), 288--295, Inst. Mittag-Leffler, Djursholm, 1963; MR0175892 (31 \#168)] and M. Flach \ref[J. Reine Angew. Math. 412 (1990), 113--127; MR1079004 (92b:11037)] do imply is that is even, if AA admits a suitable polarisation (cf. Theorem 1.2). Admitting a principal polarisation is sufficient for the odd part of to have square order.

And indeed, B. Poonen and M. Stoll \ref[Ann. of Math. (2) 150 (1999), no. 3, 1109--1149; MR1740984 (2000m:11048)] came up with an explicit Jacobian surface AA over Q\bold Q such that ; they also gave a criterion for the Jacobian variety AA of a (smooth, projective, absolutely connected) curve XX of genus g2g\ge2 over KK to have odd : such is the case if the (finite) number of places of KK where XX fails to have a 00-cycle of degree g1g-1 is odd. Numerous further examples have been found by B. W. Jordan and R. A. Livn� \ref[Bull. London Math. Soc. 31 (1999), no. 6, 681--685; MR1711026 (2000j:11090)] and by S. Baba \ref[J. Number Theory 87 (2001), no. 1, 96--108; MR1816038 (2002b:11085)].

The author gives the first examples of odd for an odd prime pp. His main result implies that for every p<25000p<25000 (with p37p\neq37), there is a twist AA of the power Ep1E^{p-1} of the abelian curve E ⁣:y2+y=x3xE\colon y^2+y=x^3-x (the curve 37A) such that is odd (Theorem 3.1). To get an example where is odd, use the curve 43A instead.

The restriction p<25000p<25000 (cf. Proposition 2.3) comes from the fact that for these primes his tireless computer has been able to find a certain auxiliary prime ll (cf. Conjecture 2.1) needed for constructing AA. A sample of his instructions to the computer is included.

The main result (Theorem 2.14) establishes an exact sequence for an abelian curve EE over Q\bold Q and an odd prime pp which does not divide any of the Tamagawa numbers of EE and for which ρE,p ⁣:Gal(QQ)Aut(pE(Q))\rho_{E,p}\colon {\rm Gal}(\overline{\bold Q}|\bold Q)\rightarrow{\rm Aut}({}_p E(\overline{\bold Q})) is surjective. The auxiliary prime ll should be 1(modp)\equiv1\pmod p, it should not divide the conductor of EE, the function L(E,χ,s)L(E,\chi,s) should not vanish at s=1s=1 for some---and hence for all p1p-1---character(s) χ ⁣:(Z/lZ)×pC×\chi\colon (\bold Z/l\bold Z)^\times\rightarrow{}_p\bold C^\times of level ll and order pp, and, finally, pp should not divide CardE(Fl){\rm Card}\, E(\bold F_l). The degree-pp cyclic extension LL is contained in the field of llth roots of 11, and AA is the kernel of the trace map ; it turns out to be a twist of Ep1E^{p-1} (Proposition 2.4).

If is finite, then so are the other two by a deep theorem of Kazuya Kato, applicable by the choice of ll. In that case rkE(Q){\rm rk}\,E(\bold Q) and have the same parity, in view of the surjectivity of ρE,p\rho_{E,p} and the fact that the last two groups in the displayed exact sequence are of square order. The author gets the desired examples of odd by choosing an EE for which rkE(Q){\rm rk}\,E(\bold Q) is odd---such as the rank-1 curve 37A. For this curve he also verifies, for good measure, that , using the results of Kolyvagin and the programmes of Cremona.

However, is even for every prime qpq\neq p, if is finite (Proposition 2.16).

REVISED (January, 2005)

Current version of review. Go to earlier version.

Reviewed by Chandan Singh Dalawat

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MR2052021 (2005c:11070)
Stein, William(1-HRV); Watkins, Mark(1-PAS)
Modular parametrizations of Neumann-Setzer elliptic curves.
Int. Math. Res. Not. 2004, no. 27, 1395--1405.
11G05 (11G18)
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Let E/QE/\bold Q be an elliptic curve of conductor NN. G. Stevens \ref[Invent. Math. 98 (1989), no. 1, 75--106; MR1010156 (90m:11089)] conjectured that the optimal quotient of X1(N)X_1(N) in the isogeny class of EE is the curve in this isogeny class with minimal Faltings height. In this paper the authors verify Stevens' conjecture in the case where NN is prime. To do so, first recall that in \ref[J.-F. Mestre and J. Oesterl�, J. Reine Angew. Math. 400 (1989), 173--184; MR1013729 (90g:11078)] the isogeny class of an elliptic curve E/QE/\bold Q of prime conductor p>37p>37 contains exactly one curve, unless p=u2+64p=u^2+64 and EE is one of the two Neumann-Setzer curves \ref[O. Neumann, Math. Nachr. 49 (1971), 107--123; MR0337999 (49 \#2767a); B. Setzer, J. London Math. Soc. (2) 10 (1975), 367--378; MR0371904 (51 \#8121)]: E0 ⁣:y2+xy=x3u+14x2+4xu, E_0\colon y^2 + xy = x^3 - \frac{u+1}{4} x^2 + 4x - u, E1 ⁣:y2+xy=x3u+14x2u. E_1\colon y^2 + xy = x^3 - \frac{u+1}{4} x^2 - u. To study Stevens' conjecture it then suffices to consider the second case. The Faltings height of E1E_1 is smaller than that of E0E_0; this follows by exhibiting an isogeny E1E0 E_1 \rightarrow E_0 that extends to an �tale morphism of the respective N�ron models. Analyze the kernel of this isogeny and of the natural map from the Jacobian of X0(p)X_0(p) to that of X1(p)X_1(p), coupled with the fact that E0E_0 is X0(p)X_0(p)-optimal \ref[J.-F. Mestre and J. Oesterl�, op. cit.], and it follows that E1E_1 is X1(p) X_1(p)-optimal.

By an intricate analysis of the Eisenstein ideals \ref[B. Mazur, Inst. Hautes �tudes Sci. Publ. Math. No. 47 (1977), 33--186 (1978); MR0488287 (80c:14015)], the authors also show that the modular degree of E0E_0 is odd if and only if u3(mod8) u\equiv 3 \pmod 8 , and they post various conjectures concerning the parity of the modular degree of elliptic curves over Q\bold Q (sample Conjecture 4.2: there are infinitely many elliptic curves over Q\bold Q with odd modular degree). The paper ends with numerical data for the frequency of nontrivial pp-{\cyr Sh} (presumably computed under the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture) for the Neumann-Setzer curves.

Reviewed by Siman Wong

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[References]

  1. A. Abbes and E. Ullmo, \`A propos de la conjecture de Manin pour les courbes elliptiques modulaires [ The Manin conjecture for modular elliptic curves], Compositio Math. 103 (1996), no. 3, 269--286 (French). MR1414591 (97f:11038)
  2. A. Brumer and O. McGuinness, The behavior of the Mordell-Weil group of elliptic curves, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.) 23 (1990), no. 2, 375--382, http://www.oisinmc.com/math/310716/. MR1044170 (91b:11076)
  3. F. Calegari and W. Stein, Conjectures about discriminants of Hecke algebras of prime level, to appear in ANTS VI proceedings, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science Series, http://web.ew.usna.edu/\simants/.
  4. J. E. Cremona, Elliptic curves of conductor 20000\leq 20000, http://www.maths.nott.ac.uk/personal/jec/ftp/data.
  5. C. Delaunay, Heuristics on Tate-Shafarevitch groups of elliptic curves defined over Q\Bbb{Q} Experiment. Math. 10 (2001), no. 2, 191--196. MR1837670 (2003a:11065)
  6. P. Deligne, Preuve des conjectures de Tate et de Shafarevitch (d'apr\`es G. Faltings) [ Proof of the Tate and Shafarevich conjectures (after G. Faltings)], Ast�risque (1985), no. 121--122, 25--41 (French), Seminaire Bourbaki, Vol. 1983/84. MR0768952 (87c:11026)
  7. F. Diamond and J. Im, Modular forms and modular curves, Seminar on Fermat's Last Theorem (Toronto, Ontario, 1993--1994), CMS Conf. Proc., vol. 17, American Mathematical Society, Rhode Island, 1995, pp. 39--133. MR1357209 (97g:11044)
  8. M. Emerton, Optimal quotients of modular Jacobians, preprint, 2001. cf. MR2021024
  9. G. Frey, Links between solutions of AB=C{\rm A} - {\rm B} = {\rm C} and elliptic curves, Number Theory (Ulm, 1987) (H. P. Schlickewei and E. Wirsing, eds.), Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 1380, Springer, New York, 1989, pp. 31--62. MR1009792 (90g:11069)
  10. R. K. Guy, Unsolved Problems in Number Theory, Problem Books in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994. MR1299330 (96e:11002)
  11. G. H. Hardy and J. E. Littlewood, Some problems of "Partitio numerorum": III. On the expression of a number as a sum of primes, Acta Math. 44 (1922), 1--70.
  12. S. Ling and J. Oesterl�, The Shimura subgroup of J0(N){\rm J}_0 ({\rm N}), Ast�risque (1991), no. 196--197, 171--203 (1992). MR1141458 (93b:14038)
  13. B. Mazur, Three lectures about the arithmetic of elliptic curves, http://swc.math.arizona.edu/notes/files/98MazurLN.pdf.
  14. B. Mazur, Modular curves and the Eisenstein ideal, Inst. Hautes �tudes Sci. Publ. Math. (1977), no. 47, 33--186. MR0488287 (80c:14015)
  15. L. Merel, L'accouplement de Weil entre le sous-groupe de Shimura et le sous-groupe cuspidal de J0(p){\rm J}_0 ({\rm p}) [ Weil pairing of the Shimura subgroup and the cuspidal subgroup of J0(p){\rm J}_0 ({\rm p})], J. reine angew. Math. 477 (1996), 71--115 (French). MR1405312 (97f:11045)
  16. J.-F. Mestre and J. Oesterl�, Courbes de Weil semi-stables de discriminant une puissance m{\rm m}- i\`eme [ Semistable Weil curves with discriminant an m{\rm m} th power], J. reine angew. Math. 400 (1989), 173--184 (French). MR1013729 (90g:11078)
  17. D. Mumford, Abelian Varieties, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Studies in Mathematics, no. 5, Oxford University Press, London, 1970. MR0282985 (44 #219)
  18. O. Neumann, Elliptische Kurven mit vorgeschriebenem Reduktionsverhalten. I, Math. Nachr. 49 (1971), 107--123 (German). MR0337999 (49 #2767a)
  19. O. Neumann, Elliptische Kurven mit vorgeschriebenem Reduktionsverhalten. II, Math. Nachr. 56 (1973), 269--280 (German). MR0338000 (49 #2767b)
  20. A. P. Ogg, Hyperelliptic modular curves, Bull. Soc. Math. France 102 (1974), 449--462. MR0364259 (51 #514)
  21. K. A. Ribet and W. A. Stein, Lectures on Serre's conjectures, Arithmetic Algebraic Geometry (Park City, Utah, 1999), IAS/Park City Math. Ser., vol. 9, American Mathematical Society, Rhode Island, 2001, pp. 143--232. MR1860042 (2002h:11047)
  22. B. Setzer, Elliptic curves of prime conductor, J. London Math. Soc. (2) 10 (1975), 367--378. MR0371904 (51 #8121)
  23. W. A. Stein and M. Watkins, A database of elliptic curves---first report, Algorithmic Number Theory (Sydney 2002) (C. Fieker and D. Kohel, eds.), Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., vol. 2369, Springer, Berlin, 2002, pp. 267--275. MR2041090
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Next Item
MR2053457
Dummigan, Neil(4-SHEF-PM); Stein, William(1-HRV); Watkins, Mark(1-PAS)
Constructing elements in Shafarevich-Tate groups of modular motives. (English. English summary)
Number theory and algebraic geometry, 91--118,
London Math. Soc. Lecture Note Ser., 303,
Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2003.
11F33 (11F67 11F80 11G18)
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MR2029169 (2004k:11094)
Conrad, Brian(1-MI); Edixhoven, Bas(NL-LEID-MI); Stein, William(1-HRV)
has connected fibers. (English. English summary)
Doc. Math. 8 (2003), 331--408 (electronic).
11G18 (11F11 14H40)
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Let pp be a prime number and J1(p)J_1(p) the Jacobian of the moduli curve X1(p)X_1(p) over $Qthatparametrizespairs that parametrizes pairs (E,P)where where Eisanellipticcurveand is an elliptic curve and Pisapointof is a point of Eoforder of order p.Oneofthemainresultsofthepaperisthat. One of the main results of the paper is that J_1(p)hastrivialcomponentgroupat has trivial component group at p$.

The proof involves the study of the component groups at pp of Jacobians of intermediate curves between X1(p)X_1(p) and X0(p)X_0(p). (The case of X0(p)X_0(p) was treated by Mazur-Rapoport.) More precisely, for any subgroup HH of $(Z/pZ)^\times/\{�1\}theauthorsconsiderthecurve the authors consider the curve X_H(p)=X_1(p)/HanditsJacobian and its Jacobian J_H(p).Theyprovethatthenaturalsurjectivemap. They prove that the natural surjective map J_H(p)\to J_0(p)inducesaninjection induces an injection \Phi(J_H(p))\to \Phi(J_0(p))betweenthecomponentgroupsofmod between the component groups of mod pfibersandthat fibers and that \Phi(J_H(p)) iscyclicoforder is cyclic of order |H|/\gcd(|H|,6)over over \overlineF_p.Furthermore,viewing. Furthermore, viewing \Phi(J_0(p))asaquotientof as a quotient of (Z/pZ)^\times/\{�1\},theimageof, the image of \Phi(J_H(p))coincideswiththeimageof coincides with the image of H.Inparticular,. In particular, \Phi(J_H(p))isalwaysEisensteininthesenseofMazurandRibetand is always Eisenstein in the sense of Mazur and Ribet and \Phi(J_1(p))istrivial.Inordertoreachtheseresultstheycomputearegularpropermodelof is trivial. In order to reach these results they compute a regular proper model of X_H(p)over over Z_{(p)}$, adapting the classical Jung-Hirzebruch method for complex sufaces. This method enables them to resolve tame cyclic quotient singularities on curves over a discrete valuation ring.

The last part of the paper is devoted to computer computations concerning the arithmetic of J1(p)J_1(p). The authors give a conjectural formula for the order of the torsion subgroup of $J_1(p)(Q)$.

Reviewed by Alessandra Bertapelle

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[References]

  1. A. Agash�, On invisible elements of the Tate-Shafarevich group, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris S�r. I Math. 328 (1999), no. 5, 369--374. MR1678131 (2000e:11083)
  2. A. Agashe and W. Stein, Visibility of Shafarevich-Tate groups of abelian varieties, J. Number Theory 97 (2002), no. 1, 171--185. MR1939144 (2003h:11070)
  3. A. Agashe and W. Stein, Visible evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for modular abelian varieties of analytic rank 0, to appear in Math. Comp. cf. MR2085902
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MR2041090
Stein, William A.(1-HRV); Watkins, Mark(1-PAS)
A database of elliptic curves---first report.
Algorithmic number theory (Sydney, 2002), 267--275,
Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., 2369,
Springer, Berlin, 2002.
11G05 (11Yxx)
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MR1959271 (2004b:11072)
Lario, Joan-C.(E-UPBMS); Schoof, Ren�(I-ROME2)
Some computations with Hecke rings and deformation rings. (English. English summary)
With an appendix by Amod Agashe and William Stein.
Experiment. Math. 11 (2002), no. 2, 303--311.
11F80 (11F11 11F25)
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References: 19 [-] Reference Citations: 1 Review Citations: 0

Let EE be the elliptic curve over $Qofconductor142,havingWeierstrassequation of conductor 142, having Weierstrass equation Y^{2}+XY=X^{3}-X^{2}-X-3.Therepresentation. The representation \overline\rho\colon {\rm Gal}(\overlineQ/Q)\to {\rm GL}_{2}(F_{3})providedbythe provided by the 3torsionpointsisunramifiedoutside-torsion points is unramified outside 3and and 71.For. For N=71, 142and and 284theauthorsdetermineexplicitlythestructureofthelocalHeckealgebra the authors determine explicitly the structure of the local Hecke algebra T_{N}generatedover generated over Z_{3}bytheHeckeoperatorsactingontheweight2andlevel by the Hecke operators acting on the weight 2 and level Ncuspformswhoseassociatedmod3representationisisomorphicto cusp forms whose associated mod 3 representation is isomorphic to \overline\rho.Moreprecisely,theyshowthat. More precisely, they show that T_{N}\simeq Z_{3}[[X,Y]]/I_{N},wheregeneratorsoftheideals, where generators of the ideals I_{N}$ are explicitly computed. By the results of A. J. Wiles \ref[Ann. of Math. (2) 141 (1995), no. 3, 443--551; MR1333035 (96d:11071)] and R. L. Taylor and Wiles \ref[Ann. of Math. (2) 141 (1995), no. 3, 553--572; MR1333036 (96d:11072)], in the case N=71N=71 (resp. N=284N=284) the algebra TNT_{N} is the universal deformation ring of ρ\overline\rho for a deformation problem which is minimal (resp. non-minimal) at 71; it is a complete intersection, as we can directly see from the description given in this paper. For the case N=142N=142 two natural Hecke algebras are considered, corresponding to the eigenvalues 1�1 for the Hecke operator T2T_{2}. Both algebras turn out to be complete intersections. The main tool of the construction is the determination, in the appendix, of a bound (depending on the level NN) on the greatest index nn such that the Hecke operators TrT_{r} with rnr\leq n generate the whole Hecke algebra. This allows the authors to do computations by dealing with a finite number of vectors with entries in $Z_{3}$.

Reviewed by Lea Terracini

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[References]

  1. G. Cornell, J.H. Silverman and G. Stevens, Eds. Modular forms and Fermat's Last Theorem, Springer-Verlag, New York 1997. MR1638473 (99k:11004)
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MR1939144 (2003h:11070)
Agashe, Amod(1-TX); Stein, William(1-HRV)
Visibility of Shafarevich-Tate groups of abelian varieties. (English. English summary)
J. Number Theory 97 (2002), no. 1, 171--185.
11G40 (11G10 14K15)
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To a short exact sequence 0AJQ00\to A\to J\to Q\to 0 of abelian varieties over a field KK corresponds a long exact sequence 0A(K)J(K)Q(K)H1(K,A)H1(K,J) 0\to A(K)\to J(K)\to Q(K)\to H^1(K,A)\to H^1(K,J)\to\cdots of cohomology groups. B. C. Mazur says that a class cH1(K,A)c\in H^1(K,A) is visible in JJ if it gets killed in H1(K,J)H^1(K,J). The authors show that every class cc is visible in some JJ (Proposition 1.3)---indeed, one can take JJ to have dimension less than dn2ddn^{2d}, where dd is the dimension of AA and nn is the order of cc in H1(K,A)H^1(K,A) (Proposition 2.3).

When KK is a number field, the notion of visibility in JJ applies to elements of the subgroup of those classes whose restriction to every completion of KK is trivial. If d=1d=1, the upper bound dn2d=n2dn^{2d}=n^2 can be improved to nn for elements of (Proposition 2.4).

The main theorem (Theorem 3.1) provides a method for constructing elements of the kernel of , which is the JJ-visible subgroup of . Namely, if one can find an abelian subvariety BJB\subset J and an integer nn satisfying a certain number of properties which are too technical to reproduce here, then there is a natural map φ\varphi from B(K)/nB(K)B(K)/nB(K) to the JJ-visible subgroup of ; the order of the kernel of φ\varphi is at most nrn^r, where rr is the rank of A(K)A(K).

As an application, the authors give an example (Proposition 4.1) of a 20-dimensional abelian subvariety AA of J0(389)J_0(389) and an elliptic curve BJ0(389)B\subset J_0(389) such that by taking J=A+BJ=A+B and n=5n=5 in the main theorem, one concludes that φ\varphi embeds (Z/5Z)2(\bold Z/5\bold Z)^2 into the subgroup of JJ-visible elements of , thus providing evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture in this case.

As another application (Proposition 4.2), the authors treat the elliptic curve EE of conductor 53895389 considered by J. E. Cremona and B. C. Mazur \ref[Experiment. Math. 9 (2000), no. 1, 13--28; MR1758797 (2001g:11083)] for which the conjectural order of is 99 but no element of order 3 is visible in J0(5389)J_0(5389). The authors produce 9 elements of and show that they are all visible at the higher level of J0(75389)J_0(7�5389).

Reviewed by Chandan Singh Dalawat

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[References]

  1. A. Agashe and W.A. Stein, Visible Evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture for Rank 0 Modular Abelian Varieties, preprint. cf. MR2085902
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  3. W. Bosma, J. Cannon, and C. Playoust, The magma algebra system. I. The user language, J. Symbolic Comput. 24, No. 3-4 (1997), 235--265; Computational Algebra and Number Theory, London, 1993. MR1484478
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  7. J.E. Cremona and B. Mazur, Visualizing elements in the Shafarevich-Tate group, Exp. Math. 9, No. 1 (2000), 13--28. MR1758797 (2001g:11083)
  8. B. Edixhoven, The weight in Serre's conjectures on modular forms, Invent. Math. 109, No. 3 (1992), 563--594. MR1176206 (93h:11124)
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  20. J. Sturm, On the congruence of modular forms, "Number Theory (New York, 1984--1985)," pp. 275--280, Springer, Berlin, 1987. MR0894516 (88h:11031)

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MR1900139 (2003c:11059)
Stein, William A.(1-HRV)
There are genus one curves over Q\Bbb Q of every odd index. (English. English summary)
J. Reine Angew. Math. 547 (2002), 139--147.
11G05 (11G18)
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References: 21 [-] Reference Citations: 1 Review Citations: 0

For a genus 11 curve XX over a field KK, let rr be the smallest degree of an extension LKL \vert K such that X(L)X(L) is non-empty, called the index of XKX \vert K. The author shows, for each rr not divisible by 88, that there are infinitely many genus 11 curves over KK of index rr, partially answering a question of S. Lang and J. Tate \ref[Amer. J. Math. 80 (1958), 659--684; MR0106226 (21 \#4960)]. The paper starts by giving a cohomological definition of the index rr of XKX \vert K and then some background on Heegner points and Kolyvagin's Euler system. The author proves an intermediate result for K=QK = \bold Q using Kolyvagin's Euler system. Using some additional computations, the author then deduces the main result by considering twists of E=X0(17)E = X_0(17).

Reviewed by Imin Chen

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  1. C. Breuil, B. Conrad, F. Diamond, and R. Taylor, On the modularity of elliptic curves over Q\Bbb{Q}: Wild 3-adic exercises, J. Amer. Math. Soc. 14 (2001) no. 4, 843--939. MR1839918 (2002d:11058)
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  10. V. A. Kolyvagin, On the structure of Shafarevich-Tate groups, Algebraic geometry (Chicago, IL, 1989), Springer, Berlin (1991), 94--121. MR1181210 (94b:11055)
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  14. J. S. Milne, Arithmetic duality theorems, Academic Press Inc., Boston, Mass., 1986. MR0881804 (88e:14028)
  15. M. R. Murty and V. K. Murty, Non-vanishing of LL-functions and applications, Birkh�user Verlag, Basel 1997. MR1482805 (98h:11106)
  16. C. O'Neil, The Period-Index Obstruction for Elliptic Curves, J. Number Th., to appear. cf. MR1924106 (2003f:11079)
  17. K. A. Ribet and W. A. Stein, Lectures on Serre's conjectures, IAS/Park City Math. Ser. 9 (2001). MR1860042 (2002h:11047)
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MR1897901 (2003c:11052)
Buzzard, Kevin(4-LNDIC); Stein, William A.(1-HRV)
A mod five approach to modularity of icosahedral Galois representations. (English. English summary)
Pacific J. Math. 203 (2002), no. 2, 265--282.
11F80
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Let ρ ⁣:Gal(Q/Q)GL2(C)\rho\colon {\rm Gal}(\overline{\bold Q}/\bold Q)\rightarrow {\rm GL}_2(\bold C) be a continuous irreducible two-dimensional complex representation of the absolute Galois group of the field Q\bold Q of rational numbers. Assume further that ρ\rho is odd, that is, the image of a complex conjugation element in Gal(Q/Q){\rm Gal}(\overline {\bold Q}/\bold Q) has determinant 1-1. A special case of the strong Artin conjecture asserts that there should be a weight one cuspidal newform ff whose LL-function L(s,f)L(s,f) matches the Artin LL-function L(s,ρ)L(s,\rho) attached to ρ\rho; briefly, ρ\rho should be modular. The conjecture is known to hold when the image of ρ\rho (a finite subgroup of GL2(C){\rm GL}_2(\bold C)) is solvable \ref[R. P. Langlands, Base change for ${\rm GL(2)$}, Ann. of Math. Stud., 96, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1980; MR0574808 (82a:10032); J. Tunnell, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.) 5 (1981), no. 2, 173--175; MR0621884 (82j:12015)]. In the remaining cases the projective image of ρ\rho in PGL2(C){\rm PGL}_2(\bold C) is isomorphic to the alternating group A5A_5, the group of rotational symmetries of the icosahedron. For these "icosahedral" Artin representations modularity was (until recently---see below) unknown except in a handful of cases \ref[J. P. Buhler, Icosahedral Galois representations, Lecture Notes in Math., 654, Springer, Berlin, 1978; MR0506171 (58 \#22019); On Artin's conjecture for odd 22-dimensional representations, Lecture Notes in Math., 1585, Springer, Berlin, 1994; MR1322315 (95i:11001)].

In the paper under review, Buzzard and Stein demonstrate an effective computational approach to proving the modularity of a class of icosahedral Artin representations. They apply this approach to eight representations, thereby demonstrating the modularity of each. The approach is described in detail for the first representation, of conductor 1376=25431376=2^5�43, and the necessary data for carrying out the computations for the remaining seven examples are provided.

A summary of the approach: Suppose that ρ\rho is an icosahedral representation which is unramified at 55, and for which the eigenvalues of a Frobenius element at 55 have distinct reduction modulo 55. By the main theorem of \ref[K. Buzzard and R. L. Taylor, Ann. of Math. (2) 149 (1999), no. 3, 905--919; MR1709306 (2000j:11062)], it suffices to establish that the mod5{\rm mod}\,5 reduction ρ\overline{\rho} of ρ\rho is modular; that is, that there is some mod5{\rm mod}\,5 cuspidal eigenform ff such that for all but finitely many primes pp the eigenvalue of the Hecke operator TpT_p on ff is equal to the trace of ρ\overline\rho applied to a Frobenius element at pp. By computing the space of mod5{\rm mod}\,5 modular forms of weight 55 and appropriate level, the authors identify a mod5{\rm mod}\,5 modular form ff whose first few Hecke eigenvalues match the corresponding traces of Frobenius of ρ\overline\rho; this form is then almost certainly the one required. They then compute enough information about the icosahedral extension of Q\bold Q cut out by the mod5{\rm mod}\,5 representation ρf\overline\rho_f associated to ff to identify it uniquely as an element of Table 1 of \ref[ On Artin's conjecture for odd 22-dimensional representations, Lecture Notes in Math., 1585, Springer, Berlin, 1994; MR1322315 (95i:11001)], which lists icosahedral extensions of Q\bold Q of small discriminant, and hence match ρf\overline\rho_f with ρ\overline\rho.

The paper also contains a result which makes it practical to determine computationally when two normalized cuspidal eigenforms of the same level N>4N>4, weight kk and character, over a field of characteristic not dividing NN, are equal: essentially, the number of coefficients of the qq-expansions of the eigenforms that have to be checked to guarantee equality is at worst linear in NN (for fixed kk). For computational purposes, this improves considerably on similar results of J. Sturm \ref[in Number theory (New York, 1984--1985), 275--280, Lecture Notes in Math., 1240, Springer, Berlin, 1987; MR0894516 (88h:11031)] which require checking on the order of N3N^3 coefficients.

After the first draft of this paper was written, two more relevant articles appeared \ref[K. Buzzard et al., Duke Math. J. 109 (2001), no. 2, 283--318; MR1845181 (2002k:11078); R. Taylor, "On icosahedral Artin representations. II", to appear]. Each of these establishes the modularity of a general icosahedral Artin representation, subject to various local conditions. However, none of the eight examples in this paper is covered by the first of these articles, and only three of them by the second.

Reviewed by Mark Edward Tristan Dickinson

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[References]

  1. E. Artin, \"Uber eine neue Art von LL- reihen, Abh. Math. Sem. in Univ. Hamburg, 3(1) (1923/1924), 89--108.
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  4. K. Buzzard, M. Dickinson, N. Shepherd-Barron and R. Taylor, On icosahedral Artin representations, Duke Math. J., 109(2) (2001), 283--318, CMP 1 845 181. MR1845181 (2002k:11078)
  5. K. Buzzard and R. Taylor, Companion forms and weight one forms, Ann. of Math. (2), 149(3) (1999), 905--919, , Zbl 0965.11019. MR1709306 (2000j:11062)
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  17. R. Taylor, On icosahedral Artin representations II, in preparation.
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MR1901355 (2003m:11074)
Stein, William A.(1-HRV); Verrill, Helena A.(D-HANN-IM)
Cuspidal modular symbols are transportable. (English. English summary)
LMS J. Comput. Math. 4 (2001), 170--181 (electronic).
11F67
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Summary: "Modular symbols of weight 2 for a congruence subgroup Γ\Gamma satisfy the identity {α,γ(α)}={β,γ(β)}\{\alpha,\gamma(\alpha)\}=\{\beta,\gamma(\beta)\} for all in the extended upper half plane and γΓ\gamma\in\Gamma. The analogue of this identity is false for modular symbols of weight greater than 2. This paper provides a definition of transportable modular symbols, which are symbols for which an analogue of the above identity holds, and proves that every cuspidal symbol can be written as a transportable symbol. As a corollary, an algorithm is obtained for computing periods of cusp forms."
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MR1879817 (2003f:11087)
Conrad, Brian(1-MI); Stein, William A.(1-HRV)
Component groups of purely toric quotients. (English. English summary)
Math. Res. Lett. 8 (2001), no. 5-6, 745--766.
11G18 (11G10 11G40 14K15)
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References: 18 [-] Reference Citations: 2 Review Citations: 0

Let RR be a discrete valuation ring, KK its field of fractions and kk its residue field. Suppose JJ is an abelian variety over KK, endowed with a symmetric principal polarization and let π ⁣:JA\pi\colon J\rightarrow A be an optimal quotient of JJ meaning that the kernel of π\pi is an abelian variety.

The principal polarization on JJ induces a polarization θA\theta_A on AA, whose degree is the square of a positive integer mAm_A.

Assume that the special fibre of the N�ron model of AA is the extension of a finite group ΦA\Phi_A by a torus. Let XAX_A denote the group of k\overline k-characters of this torus.

Similarly, let XJX_J denote the group of k\overline k-characters of the toric part of the special fibre of the N�ron model of JJ.

A. Grothendieck defined in \ref[ Groupes de monodromie en g\'eom\'etrie alg\'ebrique. I, Lecture Notes in Math., 288, Springer, Berlin, 1972; MR0354656 (50 \#7134)] a monodromy pairing between XAX_A and XAX_{A^\vee}, inducing an exact sequence $$ 0 \rightarrow X_{A^\vee} \rightarrow {\rm Hom}(X_A,Z) \rightarrow \Phi_A \rightarrow 0 0\rightarrow X_J \rightarrow {\rm Hom}(X_J,Z) \rightarrow \Phi_J \rightarrow 0. $$

By functoriality of N�ron models and characters, π ⁣:JA\pi\colon J\rightarrow A induces a map π ⁣:XAXJ\pi^*\colon X_A\rightarrow X_J, the saturation of whose image is denoted by . One deduces from the monodromy pairing a map $\alpha\colon X_J \rightarrow {\rm Hom}(\scr L,Z);let; let \Phi_Xbeitscokernel.Moreover,let be its cokernel. Moreover, let m_Xbetheorderofthefinitegroup be the order of the finite group \alpha(X_J)/\alpha(\scr L)$.

The main result of this paper (Theorem 6.1) implies the equality #ΦAmA=#ΦXmX. {\#\Phi_A \over m_A} = {\#\Phi_X \over m_X}.

This situation is quite common in the context of modular forms, where JJ is the Jacobian of a modular curve and AA arises from a newform. Using modular symbols, one can then compute mAm_A explicitly. Moreover, using the method of graphs or the ideal theory of quaternion algebras, one can compute mXm_X and ΦX\Phi_X. The main theorem of this paper can thus be used to compute #ΦA\#\Phi_A.

Two tables of computations are given.

It should finally be noted that this paper also offers proofs of some more or less well-known facts concerning group schemes, but for which adequate references are missing. They certainly will be of independent interest.

Reviewed by Antoine Chambert-Loir

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[References]

  1. A. Agashe and W. A. Stein, Visibility of Shafarevich-Tate groups of abelian varieties: Evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture, (2001). MR1939144 (2003h:11070)
  2. S. Bosch, W. L�tkebohmert, and M. Raynaud, N\'eron models. Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete (3), 21. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990. MR1045822 (91i:14034)
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  4. B. Conrad, A modern proof of Chevalley's theorem on algebraic groups, http://www-math.mit.edu/\simdejong/papers/chev.dvi
  5. B. Edixhoven, L'action de l'alg\`ebre de Hecke sur les groupes de composantes des jacobiennes des courbes modulaires est "Eisenstein". Courbes modulaires et courbes de Shimura (Orsay, 1987/1988). Ast�risque No. 196-197, (1991), 7--8, 159--170 (1992). MR1141457 (92k:11059)
  6. M. Emerton, Optimal quotients of modular Jacobians, (2001), preprint. cf. MR2021024
  7. E. V. Flynn, F. Lepr�vost, E. F. Schaefer, W. A. Stein, M. Stoll, and J. L. Wetherell, Empirical evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectures for modular Jacobians of genus 2 curves, Math. Comp. 70 (2001), no. 236, 1675--1697 (electronic). MR1836926 (2002d:11072)
  8. A. Grothendieck, \'El\'ements de g\'eom\'etrie alg\'ebrique, Publications Math�matiques IHES, 4,8,11,17,20,24,28,32, 1960--7. MR0217083 (36 #177a)
  9. A. Grothendieck, Groupes de monodromie en g\'eom\'etrie alg\'ebrique, Lecture Notes in Math 288, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1972). MR0354656 (50 #7134)
  10. N. Katz, B. Mazur, Arithmetic moduli of elliptic curves. Annals of Mathematics Studies, 108. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1985. MR0772569 (86i:11024)
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  12. D. R. Kohel and W. A. Stein, Component Groups of Quotients of J0(N)J_0(N), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium (ANTS-IV), Leiden, Netherlands, July 2--7, 2000 (Berlin), Springer, 2000. MR1850621 (2002h:11051)
  13. B. Mazur, Modular curves and the Eisenstein ideal. Inst. Hautes �tudes Sci. Publ. Math. No. 47 (1977), 33--186 (1978). MR0488287 (80c:14015)
  14. J.-F. Mestre, La m\'ethode des graphes. Exemples et applications. Proceedings of the international conference on class numbers and fundamental units of algebraic number fields (Katata, 1986), 217--242, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, 1986. MR0891898 (88e:11025)
  15. J.-F. Mestre and J. Oesterl�, Courbes de Weil semi-stables de discriminant une puissance mm- i\`eme, J. Reine Angew. Math. 400 (1989), 173--184. MR1013729 (90g:11078)
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MR1860042 (2002h:11047)
Ribet, Kenneth A.(1-CA); Stein, William A.(1-HRV)
Lectures on Serre's conjectures.
Arithmetic algebraic geometry (Park City, UT, 1999), 143--232,
IAS/Park City Math. Ser., 9,
Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2001.
11F80 (11F66 11G05)
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This is a nicely written survey article on the conjectures in the title of the paper. The conjectures of Serre in question are about the modularity of mod\,pp, 2-dimensional, continuous, odd, absolutely irreducible representations of the absolute Galois group $G_Qof of Q.ThereisamorerefinedversionwhichalsopredictscertainminimalmodularinvariantsfromwhichtheseGaloisrepresentationsarise.Whiletheconjecturesintheirqualitativeformarestillwideopentherehasbeenconsiderableprogressinprovingthatthequalitativeformoftheconjectureimpliestherefinedform.Itisthisimplication,whichisaconsequenceofdeepworkofmanymathematicians,thatthispapersurveysinthemain.Thepaperalsohasusefulexercisesthatwillbeofhelptosomeonewishingtolearnaboutthisarea,andtwoappendicesbyK.BuzzardandB.Conradonmod. There is a more refined version which also predicts certain minimal modular invariants from which these Galois representations arise. While the conjectures in their qualitative form are still wide open there has been considerable progress in proving that the qualitative form of the conjecture implies the refined form. It is this implication, which is a consequence of deep work of many mathematicians, that this paper surveys in the main. The paper also has useful exercises that will be of help to someone wishing to learn about this area, and two appendices by K. Buzzard and B. Conrad on mod l$ multiplicity one principles and constructions of Galois representations attached to weight 2 newforms.

{For the entire collection see MR1860012 (2002d:11003).}

Reviewed by Chandrashekhar Khare

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MR1857596 (2003d:11082)
Merel, Lo�c(F-PARIS6-MI); Stein, William A.(1-HRV)
The field generated by the points of small prime order on an elliptic curve.
Internat. Math. Res. Notices 2001, no. 20, 1075--1082.
11G05
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References: 4 [-] Reference Citations: 2 Review Citations: 2

Let pp be a prime number, and let $Q(\mu_p)denotethe denote the pthcyclotomicfield.Theauthorsprovethefollowingtheorem:Ifthereexistsanellipticcurveoverth cyclotomic field. The authors prove the following theorem: If there exists an elliptic curve over Q(\mu_p)suchthatthepointsoforder such that the points of order pon on Eareall are all Q(\mu_p)rational,then-rational, then p=2,3,5,13,or, or p > 1000.(Inaddition,thecase. (In addition, the case p=13$ has recently been ruled out by M. Rebolledo.) This result generalizes previous results of L. Merel \ref[Duke Math. J. 110 (2001), no. 1, 81--119; MR1861089 (2002k:11080)], and the techniques used in the two papers are similar. The main new ingredient is the (quite nontrivial) verification of a technical hypothesis on pp involving the non-vanishing of certain LL-functions. The reduction (for each fixed pp) of the main theorem to the verification of this hypothesis is discussed in Sections 1 and 2 of the paper. The computational methods used for verifying the hypothesis are described in detail in Section 3.

Reviewed by Matthew H. Baker

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[References]

  1. A. Agash�, On invisible elements of the Tate-Shafarevich group, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris S�r. I Math. 328 (1999), 369--374. MR1678131 (2000e:11083)
  2. J. Cremona, Algorithms for Modular Elliptic Curves, 2d ed., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1997. MR1628193 (99e:11068)
  3. L. Merel, Sur la nature non-cyclotomique des points d'ordre fini des courbes elliptiques, Duke Math. J. 110, 81--119. MR1861089 (2002k:11080)
  4. J.-F. Mestre, "La m�thode des graphes. Exemples et applications" in Proceedings of the International Conference on Class Numbers and Fundamental Units of Algebraic Number Fields (Katata, 1986), Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 1986, 217--242. MR0891898 (88e:11025)

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MR1836926 (2002d:11072)
Flynn, E. Victor(4-LVRP); Lepr�vost, Franck(F-GREN-F); Schaefer, Edward F.(1-STCL-CS); Stein, William A.(1-HRV); Stoll, Michael(D-DSLD-MI); Wetherell, Joseph L.(1-SCA)
Empirical evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectures for modular Jacobians of genus 2 curves. (English. English summary)
Math. Comp. 70 (2001), no. 236, 1675--1697 (electronic).
11G40 (11G10 11G30)
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References: 46 [-] Reference Citations: 4 Review Citations: 0

For an abelian variety AA over a number field KK, the conjectures of B. J. Birch and H. P. F. Swinnerton-Dyer \ref[J. Reine Angew. Math. 218 (1965), 79--108; MR0179168 (31 \#3419)] and of J. T. Tate \ref[in S\'eminaire Bourbaki, Vol.\ 9, Exp. No. 306, 415--440, Soc. Math. France, Paris, 1995; see MR1610880 (99f:00041) MR1610977 ] relate arithmetic properties of AA to the analytic behaviour of its LL-function L(A,s)L(A,s). The first conjecture states that the rank of the (finitely generated commutative) group A(K)A(K) of KK-rational points on AA is equal to the order of vanishing of the function L(A,s)L(A,s) at s=1s=1. The second conjecture expresses the leading coefficient L(A,1)L^*(A,1) in the Taylor expansion of L(A,s)L(A,s) at s=1s=1 in terms of certain arithmetic invariants of AA, among them the order of the group of those principal homogeneous AA-spaces over KK which become isomorphic to AA over every completion of KK.

Each of these conjectures requires an act of faith even for its statement. For the first one, the analytic continuation of the function L(A,s)L(A,s) to a domain containing the point s=1s=1 needs to be assumed; for the second, the finiteness of the group needs to be assumed as well. As of now, neither of these two requirements is known to hold in general.

However, for modular abelian varieties AA over Q\bold Q, the analytic continuation of L(A,s)L(A,s) to the whole of C\bold C is known. For such varieties, V. A. Kolyvagin and others \ref[V. A. Kolyvagin and D. Yu. Logach�v, Algebra i Analiz 1 (1989), no. 5, 171--196; MR1036843 (91c:11032)] have shown that if the LL-function L(A,s)L(A,s) has at most a simple zero at s=1s=1, then the order of vanishing equals the rank of the group $A(Q)(aspredictedbythefirstconjecture)andthegroup (as predicted by the first conjecture) and the group {\cyr Sh}(A,Q)$ is finite (so the statement of the second conjecture is meaningful).

One of the triumphs of recent years has been to show that all 1-dimensional abelian varieties over Q\bold Q are modular \ref[C. Breuil et al., J. Amer. Math. Soc. 14 (2001), no. 4, 843--939 (electronic); MR1839918 (2002d:11058)]. Extensive calculations, beginning with Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer in the early 1960s on one of the first electronic computers at Cambridge, have lent support to the conjectures in this 11-dimensional case \ref[J. E. Cremona, Algorithms for modular elliptic curves, Second edition, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1997; MR1628193 (99e:11068)].

The authors extend these calculations to some 2-dimensional cases. They consider thirty-two curves CC of genus 2 over Q\bold Q whose Jacobians JJ are modular abelian surfaces. For each JJ they compute, with a high degree of precision, the leading coefficient L(J,1)L^*(J,1) and the arithmetic invariants tt (the order of the torsion subgroup of $J(Q)),), c(theproductofthelocalTamagawanumbersatthefiniteplaces), (the product of the local Tamagawa numbers at the finite places), R(theregulator)and (the regulator) and \Omega(theperiod).Withintheaccuracyoftheircomputations,thenumber (the period). Within the accuracy of their computations, the number L^*(J,1)t^2/cR\Omegaconjecturallytheorderofthegroup---conjecturally the order of the group {\cyr Sh}(J,Q)doesturnouttobeaninteger.Inallthirtytwocases,thisintegerhappenstobeequaltotheorderofthe---does turn out to be an integer. In all thirty-two cases, this integer happens to be equal to the order of the 2torsionsubgroupof-torsion subgroup of {\cyr Sh}(J,Q).Sothesecondconjecturehasbeenreducedforthemtothestatementthatthenumber. So the second conjecture has been reduced for them to the statement that the number L^*(J,1)t^2/cR\Omegaisanintegerandthegroup is an integer and the group {\cyr Sh}(J, Q)isannihilatedby is annihilated by 2.Asanexample,forthelastcurveontheirlist,namely. As an example, for the last curve on their list, namely y2+(x3+x+1)y+(x3x2x)=0,y^2+(x^3+x+1)y+(x^3-x^2-x)=0,theJacobian the Jacobian Jsatisfiestheconjectureifthenumber satisfies the conjecture if the number L^*(J,1)t^2/cR\Omega,whichagreeswith1to44decimalplaces,isindeedequalto1andifthegroup, which agrees with 1 to 44 decimal places, is indeed equal to 1 and if the group {\cyr Sh}(J,Q)$ is trivial.

Reviewed by Chandan Singh Dalawat

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MR1850621 (2002h:11051)
Kohel, David R.(5-SYD); Stein, William A.(1-CA)
Component groups of quotients of . (English. English summary)
Algorithmic number theory (Leiden, 2000), 405--412,
Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., 1838,
Springer, Berlin, 2000.
11G18 (11F11 11G10 11G40 14G35)
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Let AA be an abelian variety over $Qandlet and let pbeaprimenumber.Animportantarithmeticinvariantattachedto be a prime number. An important arithmetic invariant attached to Aand and pistheorderofthegroup is the order of the group \Phi_{A,p}ofconnectedcomponentsofthereductionmodulo of connected components of the reduction modulo poftheNronmodelof of the N{�}ron model of Aover over Z$.

To each modular newform ff of weight 2 for the congruence subgroup Γ0(N)\Gamma_0(N) (N1N\ge1), Shimura has associated an abelian variety AfA_f defined over $Q;itisacertainquotientof; it is a certain quotient of J_0(N)andhasgoodreductionatprimeswhichdonotdivide and has good reduction at primes which do not divide N$.

The authors give an algorithm for computing the order of ΦAf,p\Phi_{A_f,p} when the prime pp divides NN but p2p^2 does not divide NN. They include a table listing these orders when N127N\le127.

{For the entire collection see MR1850596 (2002d:11002).}

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