Geronimo: His StoryIn the beginning the world was covered with darkness. There was nosun, no day. The perpetual night had no moon or stars.There were, however, all manner of beasts and birds. Among the beastswere many hideous, nameless monsters, as well as dragons, lions,tigers, wolves, foxes, beavers, rabbits, squirrels, rats, mice, andall manner of creeping things such as lizards and serpents. Mankindcould not prosper under such conditions, for the beasts and serpentsdestroyed all human offspring.All creatures had the power of speech and were gifted with reason.There were two tribes of creatures: the birds or the feathered tribeand the beasts. The former were organized wider their chief, theeagle.These tribes often held councils, and the birds wanted lightadmitted. This the beasts repeatedLy refused to do. Finally the birdsmade war against the beasts.The beasts were armed with clubs, but the eagle had taught his tribeto use bows and arrows. The serpents were so wise that they could notall be killed. One took refuge in a perpendicular cliff of a mountainin Arizona, and his eyes (changed into a brilliant stone) may be seein that rock to this day. The bears, when killed, would each bechanged into several other bears, so that the more bears the featheredtribe killed, the more there were. The dragon could not be killed,either, for he was covered with four coats of horny scales, and thearrows would not penetrate these. One of the most hideous, vilemonsters (nameless) was proof against arrows, so the eagle flew highup in the air with a round, white stone, and let it fall on thismonster's head, killing him instantly. This was such a good servicethat the stone was called sacred. They fought for many days, but atlast the birds won the victory.After this war was over, although some evil beasts remained, the birdswere able to control the councils, and light was admitted, Thenmankind could live and prosper. The eagle was chief in this goodfight: therefore, his feathers were worn by man as emblems of wisdom,justice, and power.Among the few human beings that were yet alive was a woman who hadbeen blessed with many children, but these had always been destroyedby the beasts. If by any means she succeeded in eluding the others,the dragon, who was very wise and very evil, would come himself andeat her babes.After many years a son of the rainstorm was born to her and she dugfor him a deep cave. The entrance to this cave she closed and over thespot built a camp fire. This concealed the babe's hiding place andkept him warm. Every day she would remove the fire and descend intothe cave, where the child's bed was, to nurse him; then she wouldreturn and rebuild the camp fire.Frequently the dragon would come and question her, but she would say,I have no more children; you have eaten all of them.When the child was larger he would not always stay in the cave, for hesometimes wanted to run and play. Once the dragon saw his tracks. Nowthis perplexed and enraged the old dragon, for he could not find thehiding place of the boy; but he said that he would destroy the motherif she did not reveal the child's hiding place. The poor mother wasvery much troubled; she could not give up her child, but she knew thepower and cunning of the dragon, therefore she lived in constant fear.Soon after this the boy said that he wished to go hunting. The motherwould not give her consent. She told him of the dragon, the wolves,and serpents; but he said, To-morrow I go.At the boy's request his uncle (who was the only man then living) madea little bow and some arrows for him, and the two went hunting thenext day. They trailed the deer far up the mountain and finally theboy killed a buck. His uncle showed him how to dress the deer andbroil the meat. They broiled two hind quarters, one the child and onefor his uncle. When the meat was done they placed it on some bushes tocool. Just then the huge form of the dragon appeared. The child wasnot afraid, but his uncle was so dumb with fright that he did notspeak or move.The dragon took the boy's parcel of meat and went aside with it. Heplaced the meat on another bush and seated himself beside it. Then hesaid, This is the child I have been seeking. Boy, you are nice andfat, so when I have eaten this venison I shall eat you. The boy said,No, you shall not eat me, and you shall not eat that meat. So hewalked over to where the dragon sat and to where the meat back to hisown seat. The dragon said, I like your courage, but you are foolish;what do you think you could do? Well, said the boy, I can do enough toprotect myself, as you may bind out. Then the dragon took the meatagain, and then the boy retook it. Four times in all the dragon tookthe meat, and after the fourth time the boy replaced the meat he said,Dragon, will you fight me? The dragon said, Yes, in whatever way youlike. The boy said, I will stand one hundred paces distant from youand you may have four shots at me with your bow and arrows, providedthat you will then exchange places with me and give me fourshots. Good, said the dragon. Stand up.Then the dragon took his bow, which was made of a large pine tree. Hetook four arrows from his quiver; they were made of young pine treesaplings, and each arrow was twenty feet in length. He took deliberateaim, but just as the arrow left the bow the boy made a peculiar soundand leaped into the air. Immediately the arrow was shivered into athousand splinters, and the boy was seen standing on the top of abright rainbow over the spot where the dragon's aim had beendirected. Soon the rainbow was gone and the boy was standing on theground again. Four times this was repeated, then the boy said, Dragon,stand here: it is my time to shoot. The dragon said, All right, yourlittle arrows cannot pierce my first coat of horn, and I have threeother coats --shoot away. The boy shot an arrow, striking the dragonjust over the heart, and one coat of the great horny scales fell tothe ground. The next shot another coat, and then another, and thedragon's heart was exposed. Then the dragon trembled, but could notmove. Before the fourth arrow was shot the boy said, Uncle, you aredumb with fear; you have not moved; come here or the dragon will fallon you.His uncle ran toward him. Then he sped the fourth arrow withtrue aim, and it pierced the dragon's heart. With a tremendous roarthe dragon rolled down the mountain side---down four precipices into acanon below.Immediately storm clouds swept the mountains, lightning flashed,thunder rolled, and the rain poured. When the rainstorm had passed,far down in the canon below, they could see fragments of the huge bodyof the dragon lying among the rocks, and the bones of this dragon maystill be found there.This boy's name was Apache. Usen taught him how to prepare herbs formedicine, how to hunt, and how to fight. He was the first chief of theIndians and wore the eagle's feathers the sign of justice, wisdom, andpower. To him and to his people, as they were created, Usen gave homesin the land of the West.2/21Subdivisions of the Apache TribeThe Apache Indians are divided into six sub tribes. To one of these,the Be-don-ko-he, I belong.Our tribe inhabited that region of mountainous country which lies westfrom the east line of Arizona, and south from the head waters of theGila River. Victoria East of us lived the Chi-hen-ne (Ojo Caliente), (Hot Springs) Apaches. Our tribe never had any difficulty with them. Victoria, their chief (first portrait), was always a friend to me. He always helped our tribe when we asked him for help. He lost his life in the defense of the rights of his people. He was a good man and a brave warrior. His son Charlie now lives here in this reservation with us.North of us lived the White Mountain Apaches. They were not always onthe best of terms with our tribe, yet we seldom had any war withthem. I knew their chief, Hash-ka-ai-la, personally, and I consideredhim a good warrior. Their range was next to that of the NavajoIndians, who were not of the same blood as the Apaches. We heldcouncils with all Apache tribes, but never with the NavajoIndians. However, we traded with them and sometimes visited them.To the west of our country ranged the Chi-e-a-hen Apaches. They hadtwo chiefs within my time, Co-si-to and Co-da-hoo-yah. They werefriendly, but not intimate with our tribe.Cochise South of us lived the Cho-kon-en (Chiricahua) Apaches, whosechief in the old days was Cochise (second portrait), and later hisson, Naiche. This tribe was always on the most friendly terms withus. We were often in camp and on the trail together. Naiche, Who wasmy companion in arms, is now my companion in bondage. (third picture:Geronimo riding with Naiche)To the south and west of us lived the Ned-ni Apaches. Their chief wasWhoa, called by the Mexicans Capitan Whoa They were our firmfriends. The land of this tribe lies partly in Old Mexico and partlyin Arizona. Whoa and I often camped and fought side by side asbrothers. My enemies were his enemies, my friends his friends. He isdead now, but his son Asa is interpreting this story for me.Still the four tribes (Bedonkohe, Chokonen, Chihenne, and Nedni), whowere fast friends in the days of freedom, cling together as theydecrease in number. Only the destruction of all our people woulddissolve our bonds of friendship.We are vanishing from the earth, yet I cannot think we are useless orUsen would not have created us. He created all tribes of men andcertainly had a righteous purpose in creating each.For each tribe of men Usen created He also made a home. In the landcreated for any particular tribe. He placed whatever would be best forthe welfare of that tribe.WhenGeronimo riding with Naiche Usen created the Apaches He also createdtheir homes in the West. He gave to them such grain, fruits, and gameas they needed to eat. To restore their health when disease attackedthem He made many different herbs to grow. He taught them where tofind these herbs, and how to prepare them for medicine. He gave them apleasant climate and all they needed for clothing and shelter was athand.Thus it was in the beginning: the Apaches and their homes each createdfor the other by Usen himself. When they are taken from these homesthey sicken and die. How long will it be until it is said, there areno Apaches?3/21Early LifeI was born in No-doyohn Canon, Arizona, June, 1829.In that country which lies around the head waters of the Gila River Iwas reared. This range was our fatherland; among these mountains ourwigwams were hidden; the scattered valleys contained our fields; theboundless prairies, stretching away on every side, were our pastures;the rocky caverns were our burying places.Porico or White Horse, Geronimo's brother I was fourth in a family ofeight children-- four boys and four girls. Of that family, onlymyself, my brother, Porico, and my sister, Nah-da-ste , are yetalive. We are held as prisoners of war in this Military Reservation(Fort Sill).As a babe I rolled on the dirt floor of my father's tepee, hung in mytsoch (Apache name for cradle) at my mother's back, or suspended fromthe bough of a tree. I was warmed by the sun, rocked by the winds, andsheltered by the trees as other Indian babes.When a child my mother taught me the legends of our people; taught meof the sun and sky, the moon and stars, the clouds and storms. Shealso taught me to kneel and pray to Usen for strength, health, wisdom,and protection. We never prayed against any person, but if we hadaught against any individual we ourselves took vengeance. We weretaught that Usen does not care for the petty quarrels of men.My father had often told me of the brave deeds of our warriors, of thepleasures of the chase, and the glories of the war path.Nah-da-ste, Geronimo's sister With my brothers and sisters I playedabout my father's home. Sometimes we played at hide-and-seek among therocks and pines; sometimes we loitered in the shade of the cottonwoodtrees or sought the shudock (a kind of wild cherry) while our parentsworked in the field. Sometimes we played that we were warriors. Wewould practice stealing upon some object that represented an enemy,and in our childish imitation often perform the feats ofwar. Sometimes we would hide away from our mother to see if she couldfind us, and often when thus concealed go to sleep and perhaps remainhidden for many hours.When we were old enough to be of real service we went to the fieldwith our parents: not to play, but to toil. When the crops were to beplanted we broke the ground with wooden hoes. We planted the corn instraight rows, the beans among the corn, and the melons and pumpkinsin irregular order over the field. We cultivated these crops as therewas need.Our field usually contained about two acres of ground. The fields werenever fenced. It was common for many families to cultivate land in thesame valley and share the burden of protecting the growing crops fromdestruction by the ponies of the tribe, or by deer and other wildanimals.Melons were gathered as they were consumed. In the autumn pumpkins andbeans were gathered and placed in bags or baskets; ears of corn weretied together by the husks, and then the harvest was carried on thebacks of ponies up to our homes. Here the corn was shelled, and allthe harvest stored away in caves or other secluded places to be usedin winter.We never fed corn to our ponies, but if we kept them up in the wintertime we gave them fodder to eat. We had no cattle or other domesticanimals except our dogs and ponies.We did not cultivate tobacco, but found it growing wild. This we cutand cured in autumn, but if the supply ran out the leaves from thestalks left standing served our purpose. All Indians smoked---men andwomen. No boy was allowed to smoke until he had hunted alone andkilled large game--wolves and bears. Unmarried women were notprohibited from smoking, but were considered immodest if they didso. Nearly all matrons smoked.Besides grinding the corn (by hand with stone mortars and pestles) forbread, we sometimes crushed it and soaked it, and after it hadfermented made from this juice a tis-win, which had the power ofintoxication, and was very highly prized by the Indians. This work wasdone by the squaws and children. When berries or nuts were to begathered the small children and the squaws would go in parties to huntthem, and sometimes stay all day. When they went any great distancefrom camp they took ponies to carry the basketsI frequentLy went with these parties, and upon one of these excursionsa woman named Cho-ko-le got lost from the party and was riding herpony through a thicket in search of her friends. Her little dog wasfollowing as she slowly made her way through the thick underbrush andpine trees. All at once a grizzly bear rose in her path and attackedthe pony. She jumped off and her pony escaped, but the bear attackedher, so she fought him the best she could with her knife. Her littledog, by snapping at the bear's heels and distracting his attentionfrom the woman, enabled her for some time to keep pretty well out ofhis reach. Finally the grizzly struck her over the head, tearing offalmost her whole scalp. She fell, but did not lose consciousness, andwhile prostrate struck him four good licks with her knife, and heretreated. After he had gone she replaced her torn scalp and bound itup as best she could, then she turned deathly sick and had to liedown. That night her pony came into camp with his load of nuts andberries, but no rider. The Indians hunted for her, but did not findher until the second day. They carried her home, and under thetreatment of their medicine men all her wounds were healed.The Indians knew what herbs to use for medicine, how to prepare them,and how to give the medicine. This they had been taught by Usen in thebeginning, and each succeeding generation had men who were skilled inthe art of healing.In gathering the herbs, in preparing them, and in administering themedicine, as much faith was held in prayer as in the actual effect ofthe medicine. Usually about eight persons worked together in makemedicine, and there were forms of prayer and incantations to attendeach stage of the process. Four attended to the incantations and fourto the preparation of the herbs.Some of the Indians were skilled in cutting out bullets, arrow heads,and other missiles with which warriors were wounded. I myself havedone much of this, using a common dirk or butcher knife.Small children wore very little clothing in winter and none in thesummer. Women usually wore a primitive skirt, which consisted of apiece of cotton cloth fastened about the waist, and extending to theknees. Men wore breach clothes and moccasins. In winter they hadshirts and legging in addition.Frequently when the tribe was in camp a number of boys and girls, byagreement, would steal away and meet at a place several miles distant,where they could play all day free from tasks. They were neverpunished for these frolics; but if their hiding places were discoveredthey were ridiculed.4/21Tribal Amusements, Manners, and CustomsTo celebrate each noted event a feast and dance would begiven. Perhaps only our own people, perhaps neighboring tribes, wouldbe invited. These festivities usually lasted for about four days. Byday we feasted, by night under the direction of some chief wedanced. The music for our dance was singing led by the warriors, andaccompanied by beating the esadadedne (buck-skin-on-a-hoop). No wordswere sung--only the tones. When the feasting and dancing were over wewould have horse races, foot races, wrestling, jumping, and all sortsof games (gambling).Among these games the most noted was the tribal game of Kah (foot). Itis played as follows: Four moccasins are placed about four feet apartin holes in the ground, dug in a row on one side of the camp, and onthe opposite side a similar parallel row. At night a camp fire isstarted between these two rows of moccasins, and the players arearranged on sides, one or any number on each side. The score is keptby a bundle of sticks, from which each side takes a stick for everypoint won. First one side takes the bone, puts up blankets between thefour moccasins and the fire so that the opposing team cannot observetheir movements, and then begin to sing the legends of creation. Theside having the bone represents the feathered tribe, the opposite siderepresents the beasts. The players representing the birds do all thesinging, and while singing hide the bone in one of the moccasins, thenthe blankets are thrown down. They continue to sing, but as soon asthe blankets are thrown down the chosen player from the opposing team,armed with a war club, comes to their side of the camp fire and withhis club strikes the moccasin in which he thinks the bone ishidden. If he strikes the right moccasin, his side gets the bone, andin turn represents the birds, while the opposing team must keep quietand guess in turn. There are only four plays; three that lose and onethat wins. When all the sticks are gone from the bundle the sidehaving the largest number of sticks is counted winner.Apache camp This game is seldom played except as a gambling game, butfor the purpose it is the most popular game known to thetribe. Usually the game lasts four or five hours. It is never playedin daytime.After the games are all finished the visitors say, We are satisfied,and the camp is broken up. I was always glad when the dances andfeasts were announced. So were all the other young people.Our life also had a religious side. We had no churches, no religiousorganizations, no sabbath day, no holidays, and yet weworshiped. Sometimes the whole tribe would assemble to sing and pray;sometimes a smaller number, perhaps only two or three. The songs had afew words, but were not formal. The singer would occasionally put insuch words as he wished instead of the usual tone sound. Sometimes weprayed in silence; sometimes each one prayed aloud; sometimes an agedperson prayed for all of us. At other times one would rise and speakto us of our duties to each other and to Usen. Our services wereshort.When disease or pestilence abounded we were assembled and questionedby our leaders to ascertain what evil we had done, and how Usen couldbe satisfied. Sometimes sacrifice was deemed necessary. Sometimes theoffending one was punished.If an Apache had allowed his aged parents to suffer for food orshelter, if he had neglected or abused the sick, if he had profanedour religion, or had been unfaithful, he might be banished from thetribe.The Apaches had no prisons as white men have. Instead of sending theircriminals into prison they sent them out of their tribe. Thesefaithless, cruel, lazy, or cowardly members of the tribe were excludedin such a manner that they could not join any other tribe. Neithercould they have any protection from our unwritten triballaws. Frequently these outlaw Indians banded together and committeddepredations which were charged against the regular tribe. However,the life of an outlaw Indian was a hard lot, and their bands neverbecame very large; besides, these bands frequently provoked the wrathof the tribe and secured their own destruction.When I was about eight or ten years old I began to follow the chase,and to me this was never work.Out on the prairies, which ran up to our mountain homes, wanderedherds of deer, antelope, elk, and buffalo, to be slaughtered when weneeded them.Usually we hunted buffalo on horseback, killing them with arrows andspears. Their skins were used to make tepees and bedding; their flesh,to eat.It required more skill to hunt the deer than any other animal. Wenever tried to approach a deer except against the wind. Frequently wewould spend hours in stealing upon grazing deer. If they were in theopen we would crawl long distances on the ground, keeping a weed orbrush before us, so that our approach would not be noticed. Often wecould kill several out of one herd before the others would runaway. Their flesh was dried and packed in vessels, and would keep inthis condition for many months. The hide of the deer soaked in waterand ashes and the hair removed, and then the process of tanningcontinued until the buckskin was soft and pliable. Perhaps no otheranimal was more valuable to us than the deer.Apache woman an child In the forests and along the streams were manywild turkeys. These we would drive to the plains, then slowly ride uptoward them until they were almost tired out. When they began to dropand hide we would ride in upon them and, by swinging from the side ofour horses, catch them. If one started to fly we would ride swiftlyunder him and kill him with a short stick, or hunting club. In thisway we could usually get as many wild turkeys as we could carry homeon a horse.There were many rabbits in our range, and we also hunted them onhorseback. Our horses were trained to follow the rabbit at full speed,and as they approached them we would swing from one side of the horseand strike the rabbit with our hunting club. If he was too far away wewould throw the stick and kill him. This was great sport when we wereboys, but as warriors we seldom hunted small game.There were many fish in the streams, but as we did not eat them, wedid not try to catch or kill them. Small boys sometimes threw stonesat them or shot at them for practice with their bows and arrows. Usendid not intend snakes, frogs, or fishes to be eaten. I have nevereaten of them.There were many eagles in the mountains. These we hunted for theirfeathers. It required great skill to steal upon an eagle, for besideshaving sharp eyes, he is wise and never stops at any place where hedoes not have a good view of the surrounding country.I have killed many bears with a spear, but was never injured in afight with one. I have killed several mountain lions with arrows, andone with a spear. Both bears and mountain lions are good for food andvaluable for their skin. When we killed them we carried them home onour horses. We often made quivers for our arrows from the skin of themountain lion. These were very pretty and very durable.During my minority we had never seen a missionary or a priest. We hadnever seen a white man. Thus quietly lived the Be-don-ko-he Apaches.5/21The FamilyMy grandfather, Maco, had been our chief. I never saw him, but myfather often told me of the great size, strength, and sagacity of thisold warrior. Their principal wars had been with the Mexicans. They hadsome wars with other tribes of Indians also, but were seldom at peacefor any great length of time with the Mexican towns.Mangas-Colorado, chief of the Bedonkohe Apaches Maco died when myfather was but a young warrior, and Mangas-Colorado became chief ofthe Bedonkohe Apaches. When I was but a small boy my father died,after having been sick for some time. When he passed away, carefullythe watchers closed his eyes, then they arrayed him in his bestclothes, painted his face afresh, wrapped a rich blanket around him,saddled his favorite horse, bore his arms in front of him, and led hishorse behind, repeating in wailing tones his deeds of valor as theycarried his body to a cave in the mountain. Then they slew his horses,and we gave away all of his other property, as was customary in ourtribe, after which his body was deposited in the cave, his arms besidehim. His grave is hidden by piles of stone. Wrapped in splendor helies in seclusion, and the winds in the pines sing a low requiem overthe dead warrior.After my father's death I assumed the care of my mother. She nevermarried again, although according to the customs of our tribe shemight have done so immediately after his death. Usually, however, thewidow who has children remains single after her husband's death fortwo or three years; but the widow without children marries againimmediately. After a warrior's death his widow returns to her peopleand may be given away or sold by her father or brothers. My motherchose to live with me, and she never desired to marry again. We livednear our old home and I supported her.In 1846, being seventeen years of age, I was admitted to the councilof the warriors. Then I was very happy, for I could go wherever Iwanted and do whatever I liked. I had not been under the control ofany individual, but the customs of our tribe prohibited me fromsharing the glories of the war path until the council admittedme. When opportunity offered, after this, I could go on the war pathwith my tribe. This would be glorious. I hoped soon to serve my peoplein battle. I had long desired to fight with our warriors.Perhaps the greatest joy to me was that now I could marry the fairAlope, daughter of No-po-so. She was a slender, delicate girl, but wehad been lovers for a long time. So, as soon as the council granted methese privileges I went to see her father concerning ourmarriage. Perhaps our love was of no interest to him; perhaps hewanted to keep Alope with him, for she was a dutiful daughter; at anyrate he asked many ponies for her. I made no reply, but in a few daysappeared before his wigwam with the herd of ponies and took with meAlope. This was all the marriage ceremony necessary in our tribe.Not far from my mother's tepee I had made for us a new home. The tepeewas made of buffalo hides and in it were many bear robes, lion hides,and other trophies of the chase, as well as my spears, bows, andarrows. Alope had made many little decorations of beads and drawn workon buckskin, which she placed in our tepee. She also drew manypictures on the walls of our home. She was a good wife, but she wasnever strong. We followed the traditions of our fathers and werehappy. Three children came to us-- children that played, loitered, andworked as I had done.6/21Kas-Ki-YehThe Massacre In the summer of 1858, being at peace with the Mexicantowns as well as with all the neighboring Indian tribes, we went southinto Old Mexico to trade. Our whole tribe (Bedonkohe Apaches) wentthrough Sonora toward Casa Grande, our destination, but just beforereaching that place we stopped at another Mexican town called by theIndians Kas-ki-yeh. Here we stayed for several days, camping outsidethe city. Every day we would go into town to trade, leaving our campunder the protection of a small guard so that our arms, supplies, andwomen and children would not be disturbed during our absence.Late one afternoon when returning from town we were met by a few womenand children who told us that Mexican troops from some other town hadattacked our camp, killed all the warriors of the guard, captured allour ponies, secured our arms, destroyed our supplies, and killed manyof our women and children. Quickly we separated, concealing ourselvesas best we could until nightfall, when we assembled at our appointedplace of rendezvous--a thicket by the river. Silently we stole in oneby one: sentinels were placed, and, when all were counted, I foundthat my aged mother, my young wife, and my three small children wereamong the slain. There were no lights in camp, so without beingnoticed I silently turned away and stood by the river. How long Istood there I do not know, but when I saw the warriors arranging for acouncil I took my place.That night I did not give my vote for or against any measure; but itwas decided that as there were only eighty warriors left, and as wewere without arms or supplies, and were furthermore surrounded by theMexicans far inside their own territory, we could not hope to fightsuccessfully. So our chief, Mangus-Colorado, gave the order to startat once in perfect silence for our homes in Arizona, leaving the deadupon the field.Geronimo I stood until all had passed, hardly knowing what I woulddo. I had no weapon, nor did I hardly wish to fight, neither did Icontemplate recovering the bodies of my loved ones, for that wasforbidden. I did not pray, nor did I resolve to do anything inparticular, for I had no purpose left. I finally followed the tribesilently, keeping just within hearing distance of the soft noise ofthe feet of the retreating Apaches.The next morning some of the Indians killed a small amount of game andwe halted long enough for the tribe to cook and eat, when the marchwas resumed. I had killed no game, and did not eat. During the firstmarch as well as while we were camped at this place I spoke to no oneand no one spoke to me--there was nothing to say.For two days and three nights we were on forced marches, stopping onlyfor meals, then we made a camp near the Mexican border, where werested two days. Here I took some food and talked with the otherIndians who had lost in the massacre, but none had lost as I had, forI had lost all.Within a few days we arrived at our own settlement. There were thedecorations that Alope had made--and there were the playthings of ourlittle ones. I burned them all, even our tepee. I also burned mymother's tepee and destroyed all her property.I was never again contented in our quiet home. True, I could visit myfather's grave, but I had vowed vengeance upon the Mexican trooperswho had wronged me, and whenever I came near his grave or saw anythingto remind me of former happy days my heart would ache for revenge uponMexico.Revenge As soon as we had again collected some arms and suppliesMangus-Colorado, our chief, called a council and found that all ourwarriors were willing to take the war path against Mexico. I wasappointed to solicit the aid of other tribes in this war.When I went to the Chokonen (Chiricahua) Apaches, Cochise, theirchief, called a council at early dawn. Silently the warriors assembledat an open place in a mountain dell and took their seats on theground, arranged in rows according to their ranks. Silently they satsmoking. At a signal from the chief I arose and presented my cause asfollows:Kinsman, you have heard what the Mexicans have recently done withoutcause. You are my relatives--uncles, cousins, brothers. We are men thesame as the Mexicans are--we can do to them what they have done tous. Let us go forward and trail them--I will lead you to theircity--we will attack them in their homes. I will fight in the front ofthe battle--I only ask you to follow me to avenge this wrong done bythese Mexicans--will you come? It is well--you will all come.Remember the rule in war--men may return or they may be killed. If anyof these young men are killed I want no blame from their kinsmen, forthey themselves have chosen to go. If I am killed no one need mournfor me. My people have all been killed in that country, and I, too,will die if need be.I returned to my own settlement, reported this success to mychieftain, and immediately departed to the southward into the land ofthe Nedni Apaches. Their chief, Whoa, heard me without comment, but heimmediately issued orders for a council, and when all were ready gavea sign that I might speak. I addressed them as I had addressed theChokonen tribe, and they also promised to help us.It was in the summer of 1859, almost a year from the date of themassacre of Kaskiyeh, that these three tribes were assembled on theMexican border to go upon the war path. Their faces were painted, thewar bands fastened upon their brows their long scalp-locks ready forthe hand and knife of the warrior who would overcome them. Theirfamilies had been hidden away in a mountain rendezvous near theMexican border. With these families a guard was posted, and a numberof places of rendezvous designated in case the camp should bedisturbed.When all were ready the chieftains gave command to go forward. None ofus were mounted and each warrior wore moccasins and also a clothwrapped about his loins. This cloth could be spread over him when heslept, and when on the march would be ample protection as clothing. Inbattle, if the fight was hard, we did not wish much clothing. Eachwarrior carried three days' rations, but as we often killed game whileon the march, we seldom were without food.We traveled in three divisions: the Bedonheko Apaches led byMangus-Colorado, the Chokonen Apaches by Cochise, and the NedniApaches by Whoa; however, there was no regular order inside theseparate tribes. We usually marched about fourteen hours per day,making three stops for meals, and traveling forty to forty-five milesa day.I acted as guide into Mexico, and we followed the river courses andmountain ranges because we could better thereby keep our movementsconcealed. We entered Sonora and went southward past Quitaro,Nacozari, and many smaller settlements.When we were almost at Arispe we camped, and eight men rode out fromthe city to parley with us. These we captured, killed, andscalped. This was to draw the troops from the city, and the next daythey came. The skirmishing lasted all day without a generalengagement, but just at night we captured their supply train, so wehad plenty of provisions and some more guns.That night we posted sentinels and did not move our camp, but restedquietly all night, for we expected heavy work the next day. Early thenext morning the warriors were assembled to pray--not for help, butthat they might have health and avoid ambush or deceptions by theenemy.As we had anticipated, about ten o'clock in the morning the wholeMexican force came out. There were two companies of cavalry and two ofinfantry. I recognized the cavalry as the soldiers who had killed mypeople at Kaskiyeh. This I told to the chieftains, and they said thatI might direct the battle.I was no chief and never had been, but because I had been more deeplywronged than others, this honor was conferred upon me, and I resolvedto prove worthy of the trust. I arranged the Indians in a hollowcircle near the river, and the Mexicans drew their infantry up in twolines, with the cavalry in reserve. We were in the timber, and theyadvanced until within about four hundred yards, when they halted andopened fire. Soon I led a charge against them, at the same timesending some braves to attack the rear. In all the battle I thought ofmy murdered mother, wife, and babies--of my father's grave and my vowof vengeance, and I fought with fury. Many fell by my hand, andconstantly I led the advance. Many braves were killed The battlelasted about two hours.At the last four Indians were alone in the center of the field--myselfand three other warriors. Our arrows were all gone, our spears brokenoff in the bodies of dead enemies. We had only our hands and kniveswith which to fight, but all who had stood against us were dead. Thentwo armed soldiers came upon us from another part of the field. Theyshot down two of our men and we, the remaining two, fled toward ourown warriors. My companion was struck down by a saber, but I reachedour warriors, seized a spear, and turned. The one who pursued memissed his aim and fell by my spear. With his saber I met the trooperwho had killed my companion and we grappled and fell. I killed himwith my knife and quickly rose over his body, brandishing his saber,seeking for other troopers to kill. There were none. But the Apacheshad seen. Over the bloody field, covered with the bodies of Mexicans,rang the fierce Apache war-whoop.Still covered with the blood of my enemies, still holding myconquering weapon, still hot with the joy of battle, victory, andvengeance, I was surrounded by the Apache braves and made war chief ofall the Apaches. Then I gave orders for scalping the slain.I could not call back my loved ones, I could not bring back the deadApaches, but I could rejoice in this revenge. The Apaches had avengedthe massacre of Kas-ki-yeh.7/21Fighting Under DifficultiesAll the other Apaches were satisfied after the battle of Kaskiyeh, butI still desired more revenge. For several months we were busy with thechase and other peaceful pursuits. Finally I succeeded in persuadingtwo other warriors, Ah-koch-ne and Ko-deh-ne, to go with me to invadethe Mexican country.We left our families with the tribe and went on the war path. We wereon foot and carried three days' rations. We entered Mexico on thenorth line of Sonora and followed the Sierra de Antunez Mountains tothe south end of the range. Here we decided to attack a smallvillage. (I do not know the name of this village.) At daylight weapproached from the mountains. Five horses were hitched outside. Weadvanced cautiously, but just before we reached the horses theMexicans opened fire from the houses. My two companions werekilled. Mexicans swarmed on every side; some were mounted; some wereon foot, and all seemed to be armed. Three times that day I wassurrounded, but I kept fighting, dodging, and hiding. Several timesduring the day while in concealment I had a chance to take deliberateaim at some Mexican, who, gun in hand, was looking for me. I do notthink I missed my aim either time. With the gathering darkness I foundmore time to retreat toward Arizona. But the Mexicans did not quit thechase. Several times the next day mounted Mexicans tried to head meoff; many times they fired on me, but I had no more arrows; so Idepended upon running and hiding, although I was very tired, I had noteaten since the chase began, nor had I dared to stop for rest. Thesecond night I got clear of my pursuers, but I never slackened my paceuntil I reached our home in Arizona. I came into our camp withoutbooty, without my companions, exhausted, but not discouraged.The wives and children of my two dead companions were cared for bytheir people. Some of the Apaches blamed me for the evil result of theexpedition, but I said nothing. Having failed, it was only proper thatI should remain silent. But my feelings toward the Mexicans did notchange--I still hated them and longed for revenge. I never ceased toplan for their punishment, but it was hard to get the other warriorsto listen to my proposed raids.In a few months after this last adventure I persuaded two otherwarriors to join me in raiding the Mexican frontier. On our formerraid we had gone through the Nedni Apaches' range into Sonora. Thistime we went through the country of the Cho-kon-en and entered theSierra Madre Mountains. We traveled south, secured more rations, andprepared to begin our raids. We had selected a village near themountains which we intended to attack at daylight. While asleep thatnight Mexican scouts discovered our camp and fired on us, killing onewarrior. In the morning we observed a company of Mexican troops comingfrom the south. They were mounted and carried supplies for a longjourney. We followed their trail until we were sure that they wereheaded for our range in Arizona; then we hurried past them and inthree days reached our own settlement. We arrived at noon, and thatafternoon, about three o'clock, these Mexican troops attacked oursettlement. Their first volley killed three small boys. Many of thewarriors of our tribe were away from home, but the few of us who werein camp were able to drive the troops out of the mountains beforenight. We killed eight Mexicans and lost five--two warriors and threeboys. The Mexicans rode due south in full retreat. Four warriors weredetailed to follow them, and in three days these trailers returned,saying that the Mexican cavalry had left Arizona, going southward. Wewere quite sure they would not return soon.Geronimo riding with Naiche Soon after this (in the summer of 1860) Iwas again able to take the war path against the Mexicans, this timewith twenty-five warriors. We followed the trail of the Mexican troopslast mentioned and entered the Sierra de Sahuaripa Mountains. Thesecond day in these mountains our scouts discovered mounted Mexicantroops. There was only one company of cavalry in this command, and Ithought that by properly surprising them we could defeat them. Weambushed the trail over which they were to come. This was at a placewhere the whole company must pass through a mountain defile. Wereserved fire until all of the troops had passed through; then thesignal was given. The Mexican troopers, seemingly without a word ofcommand, dismounted, and placing their horses on the outside of thecompany, for breastworks, made a good fight against us. I saw that wecould not dislodge them without using all our ammunition, so I led acharge. The warriors suddenly pressed in from all sides and we foughthand to hand. During this encounter I raised my spear to kill aMexican soldier just as he leveled his gun at me; I was advancingrapidly, and my foot slipping in a pool of blood, I fell under theMexican trooper. He struck me over the head with the butt of his gun,knocking me senseless. Just at that instant a warrior who followed inmy footsteps killed the Mexican with a spear. In a few minutes not aMexican soldier was left alive. When the Apache war-cry had died away,and their enemies had been scalped, they began to care for their deadand wounded. I was found lying unconscious where I had fallen. Theybathed my head in cold water and restored me to consciousness. Thenthey bound up my wound and the next morning, although weak from lossof blood and suffering from a severe headache, I was able to march onthe return to Arizona. I did not fully recover for months, and I stillwear the scar given me by that musketeer. In this fight we had lost soheavily that there really was no glory in our victory, and we returnedto Arizona. No one seemed to want to go on the war path again thatyear.In the summer (1861) with twelve warriors I again went into Mexico. Weentered Chihuahua and followed south on the east side of the SierraMadre Mountains four days' journey; then crossed over to the Sierra deSahuaripa range, not far east of Casa Grande. Here we rested one day,and sent out scouts to reconnoiter. They reported pack trains campedfive miles west of us. The next morning just at daybreak, as thesedrivers were starting with their mule pack train, we attackedthem. They rode away for their lives, leaving us the booty. The muleswere loaded with provisions, most of which we took home. Two muleswere loaded with side-meat or bacon; this we threw away. We started totake these pack trains home, going northward through Sonora, but whennear Casita, Mexican troops overtook us. It was at daybreak and wewere just finishing our breakfast. We had no idea that we had beenpursued or that our enemies were near until they opened fire. At thefirst volley a bullet struck me a glancing lick just at the lowercorner of the left eye and I fell unconscious. All the other Indiansfled to cover. The Mexicans, thinking me dead, started in pursuit ofthe fleeing Indians. In a few moments I regained consciousness and hadstarted at full speed for the woods when another company coming upopened fire on me. Then the soldiers who had been chasing the otherIndians turned, and I stood between two hostile companies, but I didnot stand long. Bullets whistled in every direction and at close rangeto me. One inflicted a slight flesh wound on my side, but I keptrunning, dodging, and fighting, until I got clear of my pursuers. Iclimbed up a steep canon, where the cavalry could not follow. Thetroopers saw me, but did not dismount and try to follow. I think theywere wise not to come on.It had been understood that in case of surprise with this booty, ourplace of rendezvous should be the Santa Bita Mountains in Arizona. Wedid not reassemble in Mexico, but traveled separately and in threedays we were encamped in our place of rendezvous. From this place wereturned home empty-handed. We had not even a partial victory toreport. I again returned wounded, but I was not yet discouraged. AgainI was blamed by our people, and again I had no reply.After our return many of the warriors had gone on a hunt and some ofthem had gone north to trade for blankets from the Navajo Indians. Iremained at home trying to get my wounds healed. One morning just atdaybreak, when the squaws were lighting the camp fires to preparebreakfast, three companies of Mexican troops who had surrounded oursettlement in the night opened fire. There was no time forfighting. Men, women and children fled for their lives. Many women andchildren and a few warriors were killed, and four women werecaptured. My left eye was still swollen shut, but with the other I sawwell enough to hit one of the officers with an arrow, and then makegood my escape among the rocks. The troopers burned our tepees andtook our arms, provisions, ponies, and blankets. Winter was at hand.There were not more than twenty warriors in camp at this time, andonly a few of us had secured weapons during the excitement of theattack. A few warriors followed the trail of the troops as they wentback to Mexico with their booty, but were unable to offer battle. Itwas a long, long time before we were again able to go on the war pathagainst the Mexicans.The four women who were captured at this time by the Mexicans weretaken into Sonora, Mexico, where they were compelled to work for theMexicans. After some years they escaped to the mountains and startedto find our tribe. They had knives which they had stolen from theMexicans but they had no other weapons. They had no blankets; so atnight they would make a little tepee by cutting brush with theirknives, and setting them up for the walls. The top was covered overwith brush. In this temporary tepee they would all sleep. One nightwhen their camp fire was low they heard growling just outside thetepee. Francisco, the youngest woman of the party (about seventeenyears of age), started to build up the fire, when a mountain lioncrashed through the tepee and attacked her. The suddenness of theattack made her drop her knife, but she fought as best she could withher hand. She was no match for the lion, however; her left shoulderwas crushed and partly torn away. The lion kept trying to catch her bythe throat; this she prevented with her hands for a long time. Hedragged her for about 300 yards, then she found her strength wasfailing her from loss of blood, and she called to the other women forhelp. The lion had been dragging her by one foot, and she had beencatching hold of his legs, and of the rocks and underbrush, to delayhim. Finally he stopped and stood over her. She again called hercompanions and they attacked him with their knives and killedhim. Then they dressed her wounds and nursed her in the mountains forabout a month. When she was again able to walk they resumed theirjourney and reached our tribe in safety.This woman (Francisco) was held as a prisoner of war with the otherApaches and died the Fort Sill Reservation in 1892. Her face wasalways disfigured with those scars and she never regained perfect useof her hands. The three older women died before we became prisoners ofwar.Many women and children were carried away at different times byMexicans. Not many of them ever returned, and those who did underwentmany hardships in order to be again united with their people. Thosewho did not escape were slaves to the Mexicans, or perhaps even moredegraded.When warriors were captured by the Mexicans they were kept inchains. Four warriors who were captured once at a place north of CasaGrande, called by the Indians Honas, were kept in chains for a yearand a half, when they were exchanged for Mexicans whom we hadcaptured.We never chained prisoners or kept them in confinement, but theyseldom got away. Mexican men when captured were compelled to cut woodand herd horses. Mexican women and children were treated as our ownpeople.8/21Raids That Were SuccessfulIn the summer of 1862 I took eight men and invaded Mexicanterritory. We went south on the west side of the Sierra MadreMountains for five days; then in the night crossed over to thesouthern part of the Sierra de Sahuaripa range. Here we again campedto watch for pack trains. About ten o'clock next morning four drivers,mounted, came past our camp with a pack-mule train. As soon as theysaw us they rode for their lives, leaving us the booty. This was along train, and packed with blankets, calico, saddles, tinware, andloaf sugar. We hurried home as fast as we could with these provisions,and on our return while passing through a canyon in the Santa Catalinarange of mountains in Arizona, met a white man driving a mule packtrain. When we first saw him he had already seen us, and was riding atfull tilt up the canyon. We examined his train and found that hismules were all loaded with cheese. We put them in with the other trainand resumed our journey. We did not attempt to trail the driver and Iam sure he did not try to follow us.In two days we arrived at home. Then Mangus-Colorado, our chief,assembled the tribe. We gave a feast, divided the spoils, and dancedall night. Some of the pack mules were killed and eaten.This time after our return we kept out scouts so that we would know ifMexican troops should attempt to follow us.On the third day our scouts came into camp and reported Mexicancavalry dismounted and approaching our settlement. All our warriorswere in camp. Mangus-Colorado took command of one division and I ofthe other. We hoped to get possession of their horses, then surroundthe troops in the mountains, and destroy the whole company. This wewere unable to do, for they too, had scouts. However, within fourhours after we started we had killed ten troopers with the loss ofonly one man, and the Mexican cavalry was in full retreat, followed bythirty armed Apaches, who gave them no rest until they were far insidethe Mexican country. No more troops came that winter.For a long time we had plenty of provisions plenty of blankets, andplenty of clothing. We also had plenty of cheese and sugar.Washa Another summer (1863) I selected three warriors and went on araid into Mexico. We went south into Sonora, camping in the Sierra deSahuaripa Mountains. About forty miles west of Casa Grande is a smallvillage in the mountains, called by the Indians "Crassanas." We campednear this place and concluded to make an attack. We had noticed thatjust at midday no one seemed to be stirring; so we planned to make ourattack at the noon hour. The next day we stole into the town atnoon. We had no guns, but were armed with spears and bows andarrows. When the war-whoop was given to open the attack the Mexicansfled in every direction; not one of them made any attempt to fight us.We shot some arrows at the retreating Mexicans, but killed onlyone. Soon all was silent in the town and no Mexicans could be seen.When we discovered that all the Mexicans were gone we looked throughtheir houses and saw many curious things. These Mexicans kept manymore kinds of property than the Apaches did. Many of the things we sawin the houses we could not understand, but in the stores we saw muchthat we wanted; so we drove in a herd of horses and mules, and packedas much provisions and supplies as we could on them. Then we formedthese animals into a pack train and returned safely to Arizona TheMexicans did not even trail us.When we arrived in camp we called the tribe together and feasted allday. We gave presents to everyone. That night the dance began, and itdid not cease until noon the next day.This was perhaps the most successful raid ever made by us into Mexicanterritory. I do not know the value of the booty, but it was verygreat, for we had supplies enough to last our whole tribe for a yearor more.In the fall of 1864 twenty warriors were willing to go with me onanother raid into Mexico. There were all chosen men, well armed andequipped for battle. As usual we provided for the safety of ourfamilies before starting on this raid. Our whole tribe scattered andthen reassembled at a camp about forty miles from the former place. Inthis way, it would be hard for the Mexicans to trail them and we wouldknow where to find our families when we returned. Moreover, if anyhostile Indians should see this large number of warriors leaving ourrange they might attack our camp, but if they found no one at theusual place, their raid would fail.We went south trough the Chokonen Apaches' range, entered Sonora,Mexico, at a point directly south of Tombstone, Arizona, and went intohiding in the Sierra de Antunez Mountains.We attacked several settlements in the neighborhood and secured plentyof provisions and supplies. After about three days we attacked andcaptured a mule pack train at a place called by the Indians"Pontoco". It is situated in the mountains due west, about one day'sjourney from Arispe.There were three drivers with this train. One was killed and twoescaped. The train was loaded with mescal, which was contained inbottles held in wicker baskets. As soon as we made camp the Indiansbegan to get drunk and fight each other. I, too, drank enough mescalto feel the effect of it, but I was not drunk. I ordered the fightingstopped, but the order was disobeyed. Soon almost a general fight wasin progress. I tried to place a guard out around the camp, but allwere drunk and refused to serve. I expected an attack from Mexicantroops at any moment, and really it was a serious matter to me, forbeing in command I would be held responsible for any ill luckattending the expedition. Finally the camp became comparatively still,for the Indians were too drunk to walk or even fight. While they werein this stupor I poured out all the mescal, then I put out all thefires and moved the pack mules to a considerable distance from thecamp. After this I returned to camp to try to do something for thewounded. I found that only two were dangerously wounded. From a leg ofone of these I cut an arrow head, and from the shoulder of another Iwithdrew a spear point. When all the wounds I had cared for, I myselfkept guard till morning. The next day we loaded our wounded on thepack mules and started for Arizona.The next day we captured some cattle from a herd and drove them homewith us. But it was a very difficult matter to drive cattle when wewere on foot. Caring for the wounded and keeping the cattle fromescaping made our journey tedious. But we were not trailed, andarrived safely at home with all the booty.We then gave a feast and dance, and divided the spoils. After thedance we killed all the cattle and dried the meat. We dressed thehides and then the dried meat was packed in between these hides andstored away. All that winter we had plenty of meat. These were thefirst cattle we ever had. As usual we killed and ate some of themules. We had little use for mules, and if we could not trade them forsomething of value, we killed them.In the summer of 1865, with four warriors, I went again intoMexico. Heretofore we had gone on foot; we were accustomed to fight onfoot; besides, we could easily conceal ourselves when dismounted. Butthis time we wanted more cattle, and it was hard to drive them when wewere on foot. We entered Sonora at a point southwest from Tombstone,Arizona, and followed the Antunez Mountains to the southern limit,then crossed the country as far south as the mouth of the YaquiRiver. Here we saw a great lake extending beyond the limit ofsight. Then we turned north, attacked several settlements, and securedplenty of supplies. When we had come back northwest of Arispe wesecured about sixty head of cattle, and drove them to our homes inArizona. We did not go directly home, but camped in different valleyswith our cattle. We were not trailed. When we arrived at our camp thetribe was again assembled for feasting and dancing. Presents weregiven to everybody; then the cattle were killed and the meat dried andpacked.Text prepared by Peter Meindertsma, Else-Kirsten de Schiffart, ElfieTheijs and Carlo Tinschert and converted to HTML for The AmericanRevolution - an .HTML project. ( undefined ) � 1997. All rightsreserved. Department of Alfa-InformaticaGeronimo His own story�9/21 Varying FortunesIn the fall of 1865 with nine other warriors I went into Mexico onfoot. We attacked several settlements south of Casa Grande, andcollected many horses and mules. We made our way northward with theseanimals through the mountains. When near Arispe we made camp oneevening, and thinking that we were not being trailed, turned loose thewhole herd, even those we had been riding. They were in a valleysurrounded by steep mountains, and we were camped at the south of thisvalley so that the animals could not leave without coming through ourcamp. Just as we had begun to eat our supper our scouts came in andannounced Mexican troops coming toward our camp. We started for thehorses, but troops that our scouts had not seen were on the cliffsabove us, and opened fire. We scattered in all directions, and thetroops recovered all our booty. In three days we reassembled at ourappointed place of rendezvous in the Sierra Madre Mountains innorthern Sonora. Mexican troops did not follow us, and we returned toArizona without any more fighting and with no booty. Again I hadnothing to say, but l was anxious for another raid.Early the next summer (1866)I took thirty mounted warriors and invadedMexican territory. We went south through Chihuahua as far as SantaCruz, Sonora, then crossed over the Sierra Madre Mountains, followingthe river course at the south end of the range. We kept on westwardfrom the Sierra Madre Mountains to the Sierra de Sahuripa Mountains,and followed that range northward. We collected all the horses, mules,and cattle we wanted, and drove them northward through Sonora intoArizona. Mexicans saw us at many times and in many places, but theydid not attack us at any time, nor did any troops attempt to followus. When we arrived at homes we gave presents to all, and the tribefeasted and danced. During this raid we had killed about fiftyMexicans.Next year (1867) Mangus-Colorado led eight warriors on a raid intoMexico. I went as a warrior, for I was always glad to fight theMexicans. We rode south from near Tombstone, Arizona, into Sonora,Mexico. We attacked some cowboys, and after a fight with them, inwhich two of their number were killed, we drove all their cattlenorthward. The second day we were driving the cattle, but had noscouts out. When we were not far from Arispe, Mexican troops rode uponus. They were well armed and well mounted, and when we first saw themthey were not half a mile away from us. We left the cattle and rode ashard as we could toward the mountains, but they gained on usrapidly. Soon they opened fire, but were so far away from us that wewere unable to reach them with our arrows; finally we reached sometimber, and, leaving our ponies, fought from cover. Then the Mexicanshalted, collected our ponies, and rode away across the plains towardArispe, driving the cattle with them. We stood and watched them untilthey disappeared in the distance, and then took up our search forhome.We arrived home in five days with no victory to report, no spoils todivide, and not even the three ponies which we had ridden intoMexico. This expedition was considered disgraceful.Mangas Colorado aka Magnus Colorado The warriors who had been withMagnus Colorado on this last expedition wanted to return toMexico. They were not satisfied, besides they felt keenly the tauntsof the other warriors. Magnus Colorado would not lead them back, so Itook command and we went on foot, directly toward Arispe in Sonora,and made our camp in the Sierra de Sahuripa Mountains. There were onlysix of us, but we raided several settlements (at night), captured manyhorses and mules, and loaded them with provisions, saddles andblankets. Then we turned to Arizona, traveling only at night. When wearrived at our camp we sent out scouts to prevent any surprise byMexicans, assembled the tribe, feasted, danced, and divided thespoils. Mangus Colorado would not receive any of this booty, but wedid not care. No Mexican troops followed us to Arizona.About a year after this (1868) Mexican troops rounded up all thehorses and mules of the tribe not far from our settlement. No raidshad been made into Mexico that year, and we were not expecting anyattacks. We were all in camp, having just returned from hunting.About two o'clock in the afternoon two Mexican scouts were seen nearour settlement. We killed these scouts, but the troops got under waywith the herd of our horses and mules before we saw them. It wasuseless to try to overtake them on foot, and our tribe had not a horseleft. I took twenty warriors and trailed them. We found the stock at acattle ranch in Sonora, not far from Nacozari, and attacked thecowboys who had them in charge. We killed two men and lost none. Afterthe fight we drove off our own stock and all of theirs.We were trailed by nine cowboys. I sent the stock on ahead and withthree warriors stayed in the rear to intercept any attackingparties. One night when near the Arizona line we discovered thesecowboys on our trail and watched them camp for the night and pickettheir horses. About midnight we stole into their camp and silently ledaway all their horses, leaving the cowboys asleep. Then we rode hardand overtook our companions, who always traveled at night instead ofin the daytime. We turned these horses in with the herd and fell backto again intercept anyone who might trail us. What these nine cowboysdid next morning I do not know, and I have never heard the Mexicanssay anything about it; I know they did not follow us, for we were notmolested. When we arrived in camp at home there was great rejoicing inthe tribe. It was considered a good trick to get the Mexicans' horsesand leave them asleep in the mountains.It was a long time before we again went into Mexico or were disturbedby the Mexicans.10/21Heavy FightingAbout 1873 we were again attacked by Mexican troops in our settlement,but we defeated them. Then we decided to make raids into Mexico. Wemoved our whole camp, packing all our belonging on mules and horses,went into Mexico and made camp in the mountains near Nacori. In movingour camp in this way we wanted no one to spy on us, and if we passed aMexican's home we usually killed the inmates. However, if they offeredto surrender and made no resistance or trouble in any way, we wouldtake them prisoners. Frequendy we would change our place ofrendezvous; then we would take with us our prisoners if they werewilling to go, but if they were unruly they might be killed. Iremember one Mexican in the Sierra Madre Mountains who saw us movingand delayed us for some time. We took the trouble to get him, thinkingthe plunder of his house would pay us for the delay, but after we hadkilled him we found but nothing in his house worth having. We rangedin these mountains for over a year, raiding the Mexican settlementsfor our supplies, but not having any general engagement with Mexicantroops; then we returned to our homes in Arizona. After remaining inArizona about a year we returned to Mexico, and went into hiding inthe Sierra Madre Mountains. Our camp was near Nacori, and we had justorganized bands of warriors for raiding the country, when our scoutsdiscovered Mexican troops coming toward our camp to attack us.The chief the Nedni Apaches, who, was with me and commanded onedivision. The warriors were all marched toward the troops and met themat a place about five miles from our camp. We showed ourselves to thesoldiers and they quickly rode to the top of a hill and dismounted,placing their horses on the outside for breastworks. It was a roundhill, very steep and rocky and there was no timber on its sides. Therewere two companies of Mexican cavalry, and we had about sixtywarriors. We crept up the hill behind the rocks, and they kept up aconstant fire, but we had cautioned our warriors not to exposethemselves to the Mexicans.I knew that the troopers would waste their ammunition. Soon we hadkilled all their horses, but the soldiers would lie behind these andshoot at us. While we had killed several Mexicans, we had not yet losta man. However, it was impossible to get very close to them in thisway, and I deemed it best to lead a charge against them.Nana We had been fighting ever since about one o'clock, and about themiddle of the afternoon, seeing that we were making no furtherprogress, l gave the sign for the advance. The war-whoop sounded andwe leaped forward from every stone over the Mexicans' dead horses,fighting hand to hand. The attack was so sudden that the Mexicans,running first this way and then that, became so confused that in a fewminutes we had killed them all. Then we scalped the slain, carriedaway our dead, and secured all the arms we needed. That night we movedour camp eastward through the Sierra Madre Mountains intoChihuahua. No troops molested us here and after about a year wereturned to Arizona.Almost every year we would live a part of the time in OldMexico. There were at this time many settlements in Arizona; game wasnot plentiful, and besides we liked to go down into OldMexico. Besides, the lands of the Nedni Apaches, our friends andkinsmen, extended far into Mexico. Their Chief, Whoa, was as a brotherto me, and we spent much of our time in his territory.About 1880 we were in camp in the mountains south of Casa Grande, whena company of Mexican troops attacked us. There were twenty-fourMexican soldiers and about forty Indians. The Mexicans surprised us incamp and fired on us, killing two Indians the first volley.I do notknow how they were able to find our camp unless they had excellentscouts and our guards were careless, but there they were shooting atus before we knew they were near. We were in the timber, and I gavethe order to go forward and fight at close range. We kept behind rocksand trees until we came within ten yards of their line, then we stoodup and both sides shot until all the Mexicans were killed. We losttwelve warriors in this battle.This place was called by the Indians "Sko-la-ta". When we had buriedour dead and secured what supplies the Mexicans had, we wentnorth-east. At this place near Nacori Mexican troops attacked us. Atthis place, called by the Indians "Nokode," there were about eightywarriors. Bedonkohe and Nedni Apaches. There were three companies ofMexican troops. They attacked us in an open field, and we scattered,firing as we ran. They followed us, but we dispered, and soon werefree from their pursuit; then we reassembled in the Sierra MadreMountains. Here a council was held, and as Mexican troops were comingfrom many quarters, we disbanded.In about four months we reassembled at Casa Grande to make a treaty ofpeace. The chiefs of the town of Casa Grande, and all of the men ofCasa Grande, made a treaty with us. We shook hands and promised to bebrothers. Then we began to trade, and the Mexicans gave usmescal. Soon nearly all the Indians were drunk. While they were drunktwo companies of Mexican troops, from another town, attacked us,killed twenty Indians, and captured many more. We fled in alldirections.11/21Geronimo's Mightiest BattleAFTER the treachery and massacre of Casa Grande we did not reassemblefor a long while and when we did we returned to Arizona. We remainedin Arizona for some time, living in San Carlos Reservation, at a placenow called Geronimo. In 1883 we went into Mexico again. We remained inthe mountain ranges of Mexico for about fourteen months, and duringthis time we had many skirmishes with Mexican troops. In 1884 wereturned to Arizona to get other Apaches to come with us intoMexico. The Mexicans were gathering troops in the mountains where wehad been ranging, and their numbers were so much greater than oursthat we could not hope to fight them successfully, and we were tiredof being chased about from place to place.In Arizona we had trouble with the United States soldiers and returnedto Mexico.We had lost about fifteen warriors in Arizona, and had gained norecruits. With our reduced number we camped in the mountains north ofArispe. Mexican troops were seen by our scouts in severaldirections. The United States troops were coming down from thenorth. We were well armed with guns and supplied with ammunition, butwe did not care to be surrounded by the troops of two governments, sowe started to move our camp southward.Geronimo One night we made camp some distance from the mountains by astream. There was not much water in the stream, but a deep channel wasworn through the prairie, and small trees were beginning to grow hereand there along the bank of this stream.In those days we never camped without placing scouts, for we knew thatwe were liable to be attacked at any time. The next morning just atdaybreak our scouts came in, aroused the camp, and notified us thatMexican troops were approaching. Within five minutes the Mexicansbegan firing on us. We took to the ditches made by the stream, and hadthe women and children busy digging these deeper. I gave strict ordersto waste no ammunition and keep under cover. We killed many Mexicansthat day and in turn lost heavily, for the fight lasted allday. Frequently troops would charge at one point, be repulsed thenrally and charge at another point.About noon we began to hear them speaking my name with curses. In theafternoon the general came on the field and the fighting became morefurious. I gave orders to my warriors to try to kill all the Mexicanofficers. About three o'clock the general called all the officerstogether at the right side of the field. The place where theyassembled was not very far from the main stream and a little ditch ranout close to where the officers stood. Cautiously I crawled out thisditch very close to where the council was being held. The general wasan old warrior. The wind was blowing in my direction, so that l couldhear all he said, and I understood most of it. This is about what hetold them: "Officers, yonder in those ditches is the red devilGeronimo and his hated band. This must be his last day. Ride on himfrom both sides of the ditches; kill men, women, and children; take noprisoners; dead Indians are what we want. Do not spare your own men;exterminate this band at any cost; I will post the wounded shoot alldeserters; go back to your companies and advance."Just as the command to go forward was given I took deliberate aim atthe general and he fell. In an instant the ground around me wasriddled with bullets; but I was untouched. The Apaches had seen. Fromall along the ditches arose the fierce war-cry of my people. Thecolumns wavered an instant and then swept on; they did not retreatuntil our fire had destroyed the front ranks.After this their fighting was not so fierce, yet they continued torally and readvance until dark. They also continued to speak my namewith threats and curses. That night before the firing had ceased adozen Indians had crawled out of the ditches and set fire to the longprairie grass behind the Mexican troops. During the confusion thatfollowed we escaped to the mountains.This was the last battle that I ever fought with Mexicans. UnitedStates troops were trailing us continually from this time until thetreaty was made with General Miles in Skeleton Canyon.During my many wars with the Mexicans I received eight wounds, asfollows: shot in the right leg above the knee, and still carry thebullet; shot through the left forearm; wounded in the right leg belowthe knee with a saber; wounded on top of the head with the butt of amusket; shot just below the outer corner of the left eye; shot in leftside, shot in the back. I have killed many Mexicans; I do not know howmany, for frequently I did not count them. Some of them were not worthcounting.[...........part missing............]12/21Coming of the White MenAbout the time of the massacre of "Kaskiyeh" (1858) we heard that somewhite men were measuring land to the south of us. In company with anumber of other warriors I went to visit them. We could not understandthem very well, for we had no interpreter, but we made a treaty withthem by shaking hands and promising to be brothers. Then we made ourcamp near their camp, and they came to trade with us. We gave thembuckskin, blankets, and ponies in exchange for shirts andprovisions. We also brought them game, for which they gave us somemoney. We did not know the value of this money, but we kept it andlater learned from the Navajo Indians that it was very valuable.Every day they measured land with curious instruments and put downmarks which we could not understand. They were good men, and we weresorry when they had gone on into the west. They were notsoldiers. These were the first white men I ever saw.About ten years later some more white men came. These were allwarriors. They made their camp on the Gila River south of HotSprings. At first they were friendly and we did not dislike them, butthey were not as good as those who came first.After about a year some trouble arose between them and the Indians,and I took the war path as a warrior, not as a chief. I had not beenwronged, but some of my people bad been, and I fought with my tribe;for the soldiers and not the Indians were at fault.Not long after this some of the officers of the United States troopsinvited our leaders to hold a conference at Apache Pass (FortBowie). Just before noon the Indians were shown into a tent and toldthat they would be given something to eat. When in the tent they wereattacked by soldiers. our chief, Mangus-Colorado, and several otherwarriors, by cutting through the tent, escaped; but most of thewarriors were killed or captured. Among the Bedonkohe Apaches killedat this time were Sanza, Kladetahe, Niyokahe, and Gopi.After thistreachery the Indians went back to the mountains and left the fortentirely alone. I do not think that the agent had anything to do withplanning this, for he had always treated us well. I believe it wasentirely planned by the soldiers.From the very first the soldiers sent out to our western country, andthe officers in charge of them, did not hesitate to wrong theIndians. They never explained to the Government when an Indian waswronged, but always reported the misdeeds of the Indians. Much thatwas done by mean white men was reported at Washington as the deeds ofmy people.The Indians always tried to live peaceably with the white soldiers andsettlers. One day during the time that the soldiers were stationed atApache Pass I made a treaty with the post. This was done by shakinghands and promising to be brothers. Cochise and Mangus-Colorado didlikewise. I do not know the name of the officer in command, but thiswas the first regiment that ever came to Apache Pass. This treaty wasmade about a year before we were attacked in a tent, as aboverelated. In a few days after the attack at Apache Pass we organized inthe mountains and returned to fight the soldiers. There were twotribes-the Bedonkohe and the Chokonen Apaches, both commanded byCochise. After a few days' skirmishing we attacked a freight trainthat was coming in with supplies for the Fort. We killed some of themen and captured the others. These prisoners our chief offered totrade for the Indians whom the soldiers had captured at the massacrein the tent. This the officers refused, so we killed our prisoners,disbanded, and went into hiding in the mountains. Of those who tookpart in this affair I am the only one now living.In a few days troops were sent out to search for us, but as we weredisbanded, it was, of course, impossible for them to locate anyhostile camp. During the time they were searching for us many of ourwarriors (who were thought by the soldiers to be peaceable Indians)talked to the officers and men, advising them where they might findthe camp they sought, and while they searched we watched them from ourhiding places and laughed at their failures.After this trouble all of the Indians agreed not to be friendly withthe white men any more. There was no general engagement, but a longstruggle followed. Sometimes we attacked the white men, sometimes theyattacked us. First a few Indians would be killed and then a fewsoldiers. I think the killing was about equal on each side. The numberkilled in these troubles did not amount to much, but this treachery onthe part of the soldiers had angered the Indians and revived memoriesof other wrongs, so that we never again trusted the United Statestroops.13/21Greatest of WrongsPerhaps the greatest wrong ever done to the Indians was the treatmentreceived by our tribe from the United States troops about 1863. Thechief of our tribe, Mangus-Colorado, went to make a treaty of peacefor our people with the white settlement at Apache Tejo, NewMexico. It had been reported to us that the white men in thissettlement were more friendly and more reliable than those in Arizona,that they would live up to their treaties and would not wrong theIndians.Mangus-Colorado, with three other warriors, went to Apache Tejo andheld a council with these citizens and soldiers. They told him that ifhe would come with his tribe and live near them, they would issue tohim, from the Government, blankets, flour, provisions, beef, and allmanner of supplies. Our chief promised to return to Apache Tejo withintwo weeks. When he came back to our settlement he assembled the wholetribe in council. I did not believe that the people at Apache Tejowould do as they said and therefore I opposed the plan, but it wasdecided that with part of the tribe Mangus-Colorado should return toApache Tejo and receive an issue of rations and supplies. If they wereas represented, and if these white men would keep the treatyfaithfully, the remainder of the tribe would join him and we wouldmake our permanent home at Apache Tejo. I was to remain in charge ofthat portion of the tribe which stayed in Arizona. We gave almost allof our arms and ammunition to the party going to Apache Tejo, so thatin case there should be treachery they would be prepared for anysurprise. Mangus-Colorado and about half of our people went to NewMexico, happy that now they had found white men who would be kind tothem, and with whom they could live in peace and plenty.No word ever came to us from them. From other sources, however, weheard that they had been treacherously captured and slain. In thisdilemma we did not know just exactly what to do, but fearing that thetroops who had captured them would attack us, we retreated into themountains near Apache Pass.During the weeks that followed the departure of our people we had beenin suspense, and failing to provide more supplies, had exhausted allof our store of provisions. This was another reason for movingcamp. On this retreat, while passing through the mountains, wediscovered four men with a herd of cattle. Two of the men were infront in a buggy and two were behind on horseback. We killed all four,but did not scalp them; they were not warriors. We drove the cattleback into the mountains, made a camp, and began to kill the cattle andpack the meat.Before we had finished this work we were surprised and attacked byUnited States troops, who killed in all seven Indians -one warrior,three women, and three children. The Government troops were mountedand so were we, but we were poorly armed, having given most of ourweapons to the division of our tribe that had gone to Apache Tejo, sowe fought mainly with spears, bows, and arrows. At first I had aspear, a bow, and a few arrows; but in a short time my spear and allmy arrows were gone. Once I was surrounded, but by dodging from sideto side of my horse as he ran I escaped. It was necessary during thisfight for many of the warriors to leave their horses and escape onfoot. But my horse was trained to come at call, and as soon as Ireached a safe place, if not too closely pursued, I would call him tome. During this fight we scattered in all directions and two dayslater reassembled at our appointed place of rendezvous, about fiftymiles from the scene of this battle.About ten days later the same United States troops attacked our newcamp at sunrise. The fight lasted all day, but our arrows and spearswere all gone before ten o'clock, and for the remainder of the day wehad only rocks and clubs with which to fight. We could do with theseweapons, and at night we moved our camp about four miles back into themountains where it would be hard for the cavalry to follow us. Thenext day our scouts, who had been left behind to observe the movementsof the soldiers, returned, saying that the troops had gone back towardSan Carlos Reservation.A few days after this we were again attacked by another company ofUnited States troops. Just before this fight we had been joined by aband of Chokonen Indians under Cochise, who took command of bothdivisions. We were repulsed, and decided to disband.After we had disbanded our tribe the Bedonkohe Apaches reassemblednear their old camp vainly waiting for the return of Mangus-Coloradoand our kinsmen. No tidings came save that they had all beentreacherously slain. Then a council was held, and as it was believedthat Mangus-Colorado was dead, I was elected Tribal Chief.For a long time we had no trouble with anyone. It was more than a yearafter I had been made Tribal Chief that United States troops surprisedand attacked our camp. They killed seven children, five women, andfour warriors, captured all our supplies, blankets, horses, andclothing, and destroyed our tepees. We had nothing left; winter wasbeginning, and it was the coldest winter I ever knew. After thesoldiers withdrew I took three warriors and trailed them. Their trailled back toward San Carlos.14/21RemovalsWhile returning from trailing the Government troops we saw two men, aMexican and a white man, and shot them off their horses. With thesetwo horses we returned and moved our camp. My people were sufferingmuch and it was deemed advisable to go where we could get moreprovisions. Game was scarce in our range then, and since I had beenTribal Chief I had not asked for rations from the Government, nor didI care to do so, but we did not wish to starve.Victoria We had heard that Chief Victoria of the Chihenne (OjeCaliente) Apaches was holding a council with the white men near HotSprings in New Mexico, and that he had plenty of provisions. We hadalways been on friendly terms with this tribe, and Victoria wasespecially kind to my people. With the help of the two horses we hadcaptured, to carry our sick with us, we went to Hot Springs. We easilyfound Victoria and his band, and they gave us supplies for thewinter. We stayed with them for about a year, and during this stay wehad perfect peace. We had not the least trouble with Mexicans, whitemen, or Indians. When we had stayed as long as we should, and hadagain accumulated some supplies, we decided to leave Victoria'sband. When I told him that we were going to leave he said that weshould have a feast and dance before we separated.The festivities were held about two miles above Hot Springs, andlasted for four days. There were about four hundred Indians at thiscelebration. I do not think we ever spent a more pleasant time thanupon this occasion. No one ever treated our tribe more kindly thanVictoria and his band. We are still proud to say that he and hispeople were our friends.When I went to Apache Pass (Fort Bowie) I found General Howard incommand, and made a treaty with him. This treaty lasted until longafter General Howard had left our country. He always kept his wordwith us and treated us as brothers. We never had so good a friendamong the United States officers as General Howard. We could havelived forever at peace with him. If there is any pure, honest whiteman in the United States army, that man is General Howard. All theIndians respect him, and even to this day frequently talk of the happytimes when General Howard was in command of our Post. After he wentaway he placed an agent at Apache Pass who issued to us from theGovernment clothing, rations, and supplies, as General Howarddirected. When beef was issued to the Indians I got twelve steers formy tribe, and Cochise got twelve steers for his tribe. Rations wereissued about once a month, but if we ran out we only had to ask and wewere supplied. Now, as prisoners of war in this Reservation, we do notget such good rations.Out on the prairie away from Apache Pass a man kept a store andsaloon. Some time after General Howard went away a band of outlawedIndians killed this man, and took away many of the supplies from hisstore. On the very next day after this some Indians at the Post weredrunk on "tiswin", which they had made from corn. They fought amongthemselves and four of them were killed. There had been quarrels andfeuds among them for some time, and after this trouble we deemed itimpossible to keep the different bands together in peace. Therefore weseparated, each leader taking his own band. Some of them went to SanCarlos and some to Old Mexico, but I took my tribe back to Hot Springsand rejoined Victoria's band.15/21In Prison and on the war pathSoon after we arrived in New Mexico two companies of scouts were sentfrom San Carlos. When they came to Hot Springs they sent word for meand Victoria to come to town. The messengers did not say what theywanted with us, but as they seemed friendly we thought they wanted acouncil, and rode in to meet the officers. As soon as we arrived intown soldiers met us, disarmed us, and took us both to headquarters,where we were tried by court-martial. They asked us only a fewquestions and then Victoria was released and I was sentenced to theguardhouse. Scouts conducted me to the guardhouse and put me inchains. When I asked them why they did this they said it was because Ihad left Apache Pass.I do not think that I ever belonged to those soldiers at Apache Pass,or that I should have asked them where I might go. Our bands could nolonger live in peace together, and so we had quietly withdrawn,expecting to live with Victoria's band, where we thought we would notbe molested. They also sentenced seven other Apaches to chains in theguardhouse.I do not know why this was done, for these Indians had simply followedme from Apache Pass to Hot Springs. If it was wrong (and I do notthink it was wrong) for us to go to Hot Springs, I alone was toblame. They asked the soldiers in charge why they were imprisoned andchained, but received no answer.I was kept a prisoner for four months, during which time I wastransferred to San Carlos. Then I think I had another trial, althoughI was not present. In fact I do not know that I had another trial, butI was told that I had, and at any rate I was released.After this we had no more trouble with the soldiers, but I never feltat ease any longer at the Post. We were allowed to live above SanCarlos at a place now called Geronimo. A man whom the Indians called"Nick Golee" was agent at this place. All went well here for a periodof two years, but we were not satisfied.In the summer of 1883 a rumor was current that the officers were againplanning to imprison our leaders. This rumor served to revive thememory of all our past wrongs-the massacre in the tent at Apache Pass,the fate of Mangus Colorado, and my own unjust imprisonment, whichmight easily have been death to me. Just at this time we were toldthat the officers wanted us to come up the river above Geronimo to afort (Fort Thomas) to hold a council with them. We did not believethat any good could come of this conference, or that there was anyneed of it; so we held a council ourselves, and fearing treachery,decided to leave the reservation. We thought it more manly to die onthe war path than to be killed in prison.There were in all about 250 Indians, chiefly the Bedonkohe and NedniApaches, led by myself and Whoa. We went through Apache Pass and justwest of there had a fight with the United States troops. In thisbattle we killed three soldiers and lost none.We went on toward Old Mexico, but on the second day after this UnitedStates soldiers overtook us about three o'clock in the afternoon andwe fought until dark. The ground where we were attacked was veryrough, which was to our advantage, for the troops were compelled todismount in order to fight us. I do not know how many soldiers werekilled, but we lost only one warrior and three children. We had plentyof guns and ammunition at this time. Many of the guns and muchammunition we had accumulated while living in the reservation, and theremainder we had obtained from the White Mountain Apaches when we leftthe reservation.Troops did not follow us any longer, so we went south almost to CasaGrande and camped in the Sierra de Sahuaripa Mountains. We ranged inthe mountains of Old Mexico for about a year, then returned to SanCarlos, taking with us a herd of cattle and horses.General Crook Soon after we arrived at San Carlos the officer incharge, General Crook, took the horses and cattle away from us. I toldhim that these were not white men's cattle, but belonged to us, for wehad taken them from the Mexicans during our wars. I also told him thatwe did not intend to kill these animals, but that we wished to keepthem and raise stock on our range. He would not listen to me, but tookthe stock. I went up near Fort Apache and General Crook orderedofficers, soldiers, and scouts to see that I was arrested; if Ioffered resistance they were instructed to kill me.This information was brought to me by the Indians. When I learned ofthis proposed action I left for Old Mexico, and about four hundredIndians went with me. They were the Bedonkohe, Chokonen, and NedniApaches. At this time Whoa was dead, and Naiche was the only chiefwith me. We went south into Sonora and camped in the mountains. Troopsfollowed us, but did not attack us until we were camped in themountains west of Casa Grande. Here we were attacked by GovernmentIndian scouts. One boy was killed and nearly all of our women andchildren were captured.After this battle we went south of Casa Grande and made camp, butwithin a few days this camp was attacked by Mexican soldiers. Weskirmished with them all day, killing a few Mexicans but sustaining noloss ourselves.That night we went east into the foot hills of the Sierra MadreMountains and made another camp. Mexican troops trailed us, and aftera few days attacked our camp again. This time the Mexicans had a verylarge army, and we avoided a general engagement. It is senseless tofight when you cannot hope to win.That night we held a council of war; our scouts had reported bands ofUnited States and Mexican troops at many points in the mountains. Weestimated that about two thousand soldiers were ranging thesemountains seeking to capture us. General Cook had come down intoMexico with the United States troops. They were camped in the Sierrade Antunez Mountains. Scouts told me that General Crook wished to seeme and I went to his camp. When I arrived General Crook said to me,"Why did you leave the reservation?"I said: "You told me that I mightlive in the reservation the same as white people lived. One year Iraised a crop of corn, and gathered and stored it, and the next year Iput in a crop of oats, and when the crop was almost ready to harvest,you told your soldiers to put me in prison, and if I resisted to killme. If I had been let alone l would now have been in goodcircumstances, but instead of that you and the Mexicans are hunting mewith soldiers". He said: "I never gave any such orders; the troops atFort Apache, who spread this report, knew that it was untrue". Then Iagreed to go back with him to San Carlos. It was hard for me tobelieve him at that time. Now I know that what he said was untrue, andI firmly believe that he did issue the orders for me to be put inprison, or to be killed in case I offered resistance.16/21the Final StruggleWe started with all our tribe to go with General Crook back to theUnited States, but I feared treachery and decided to remain inMexico. We were not under any guard at the time. The United Statestroops marched in front and the Indians followed, and when we becamesuspicious, we turned back. I do not know how far the United Statesarmy went after myself, and some warriors turned back before we weremissed, and I do not care.I have suffered much from such unjust orders as those of GeneralCrook. Such acts have caused much distress to my people. I think thatGeneral Crook's death was sent by the Almighty as a punishment for themany evil deeds he committed.General Miles Soon General Miles was made commander of all the westernposts, and troops trailed us continually. They were led by CaptainLawton, who had good scout. The Mexican soldiers also became moreactive and more numerous. We had skirmishes almost every day, and sowe finally decided to break up into small bands. With six men and fourwomen I made for the range of mountains near Hot Springs, NewMexico. We passed many cattle ranches, but had no trouble with thecowboys. We killed cattle to eat whenever we were in need of food, butwe frequently suffered greatly for water. At one time we had no waterfor two days and nights and our horses almost died from thirst. Weranged in the mountains of New Mexico for some time, then thinkingthat perhaps the troops had left Mexico, we returned. On our returnthrough Old Mexico we attacked every Mexican found, even if for noother reason than to kill. We believed they had asked the UnitedStates troops to come down to Mexico to fight us.South of Casa Grande, near a place called by the Indians Gosoda, therewas a road leading out from the town. There was much freightingcarried on by the Mexicans over this road. Where the road ran througha mountain pass we stayed in hiding, and whenever Mexican freighterspassed we killed them, took what supplies we wanted, and destroyed theremainder. We were reckless of our lives, because we felt that everyman's hand was against us. If we returned to the reservation we wouldbe put in prison and killed; if we stayed in Mexico they wouldcontinue to send soldiers to fight us; so we gave no quarter to anyoneand asked no favors.After some time we left Gosoda and soon were reunited with our tribein the Sierra de Antunez Mountains.Contrary to our expectations the United States soldiers had not leftthe mountains in Mexico, and were soon trailing us and skirmishingwith us almost every day. Four or five times they surprised ourcamp. One time they surprised us about nine o'clock in the morning,and captured all our horses (nineteen in number) and secured our storeof dried meats. We also lost three Indians in this encounter. Aboutthe middle of the afternoon of the same day we attacked them from therear as they were passing through a prairie -killed one soldier, butlost none ourselves. In this skirmish we recovered all our horsesexcept three that belonged to me. The three horses that we did notrecover were the best riding horses we had.Soon after this we made a treaty with the Mexican troops. They told usthat the United States troops were the real cause of these wars, andagreed not to fight any more with us provided we would return to theUnited States. This we agreed to do, and resumed our march, expectingto try to make a treaty with the United States soldiers and return toArizona. There seemed to be no other course to pursue.Soon after this scouts from Captain Lawton's troops told us that hewished to make a treaty with us; but I knew that General Miles was thechief of the American troops, and I decided to treat with him.We continued to move our camp northward, and the American troops alsomoved northward, keeping at no great distance from us, but notattacking us.I sent my brother Porico (White Horse) with Mr. George Wratton on toFort Bowie to see General Miles, and to tell him that we wished toreturn to Arizona; but before these messengers returned I met twoIndian scouts -Kayitah, a Chokonen Apache, and Marteen, a NedniApache. They were serving as scouts for Captain Lawton's troops.Theytold me that General Miles had come and had sent them to ask me tomeet him. So I went to the camp of the United States troops to meetGeneral Miles.When I arrived at their camp I went directly to General Miles and toldhim how I had been wronged, and that I wanted to return to the UnitedStates with my people, as we wished to see our families, who had beencaptured and taken away from us.General Miles said to me: "The President of the United States has sentme to speak to you. He has heard of your trouble with the white men,and says that if you will agree to a few words of treaty we need haveno more trouble. Geronimo, if you will agree to a few words of treatyall will be satisfactorily arranged."So General Miles told me how we could be brothers to each other. Weraised our hands to heaven and said that the treaty was not to bebroken. We took an oath not to do any wrong to each other or to schemeagainst each other.Negotiations with the Apaches Then he talked with me for a long timeand told me what he would do for me in the future if I would agree tothe treaty. I did not greatly believe General Miles, but because thePresident of the United States had sent me word I agreed to make thetreaty, and to keep it. Then I asked General Miles what the treatywould be. General Miles said to me: "I will take you under Governmentprotection; I will build you a house; I will fence you much land; Iwill give you cattle, horses, mules, and farming implements. You willbe furnished with men to work the farm, for you yourself will not haveto work. In the fall I will send you blankets and clothing so that youwill not suffer from cold in the winter time."There is plenty of timber, water, and grass in the land to which Iwill send you. You will live with your tribe and with your family. Ifyou agree to this treaty you shall see your family within five days."I said to General Miles: "All the officers that have been in charge ofthe Indians have talked that way, and it sounds like a story to me; Ihardly believe you."He said: "This time it is the truth."I said: "General Miles, I do not know the laws of the white man, norof this new country where you are to send me, and I might break thelaws."He said:"While I live you will not be arrested."Then I agreed to make the treaty. (Since then I have been a prisonerof war, I have been arrested and placed in the guardhouse twice fordrinking whisky.)We stood between his troopers and my warriors. We placed a large stoneon the blanket before us. Our treaty was made by this stone, as it wasto last until the stone should crumble to dust; so we made the treaty,and bound each other with an oath.I do not believe that I have ever violated that treaty; but GeneralMiles never fulfilled his promises.When we had made the treaty General Miles said to me: "My brother, youhave in your mind how you are going to kill me, and other thoughts ofwar; I want you to put that out of your mind, and change your thoughtsto peace."Then I agreed and gave up my arms. I said: "I will quit the war pathand live at peace here after."Then General Miles swept a spot of ground clear with his hand, andsaid: "Your past deeds shall be wiped out like this and you will starta new life."17/21a Prisoner of WarWhen I had given up to the Government they put me on the SouthernPacific Railroad and took me to San Antonio, Texas, and held me to betried by their laws.Geronimo and his last warriors before transport In forty days theytook me from there to Fort Pickens (Pensacola), Florida. Here they putme to sawing up large logs. There were several other Apache warriorswith me, and all of us had to work every day. For nearly two years wewere kept at hard labor in this place and we did not see our familiesuntil May, 1887. This treatment was in direct violation of our treatymade at Skeleton Canyon.After this we were sent with our families to Vermont, Alabama, wherewe stayed five years and worked for the Government. We had noproperty, and I looked in vain for General Miles to send me to thatland of which he had spoken; I longed in vain for the implements,house, and stock that General Miles had promised me.During this time one of my warriors, Fun, killed himself and hiswife. Another one shot his wife and then shot himself. He fell dead,but the woman recovered and is still living.We were not healthy in this place, for the climate disagreed withus. So many of our people died that I consented to let one of my wivesgo to the Mescalero Agency in New Mexico to live. This separation isaccording to our custom equivalent to what the white people calldivorce, and so she married again soon after she got to Mescalero. Shealso kept our two small children, which she had a right to do. Thechildren, Lenna and Robbie, are still living at Mescalero, NewMexico. Lenna is married. I kept one wife, but she is dead now and Ihave only our daughter Eva with me. Since my separation from Lenna'smother I have never had more than one wife at a time. Since the deathof Eva's mother I married another woman (December, 1905) but we couldnot live happily and separated. She went home to her people-that is anApache divorce.Then, as now, Mr. George Wratton superintended the Indians. He hasalways had trouble with the Indians, because he has mistreatedthem. One day an Indian, while drunk, stabbed Mr. Wratton with alittle knife. The officer in charge took the part of Mr. Wratton andthe Indian was sent to prison.Geronimo in his garden in Florida When we first came to Fort Sill,Captain Scot was in charge, and he had houses built for us by theGovernment. We were also given, from the Government, cattle, hogs,turkeys and chickens. The Indians did not do much good with thehogs. because they did not understand how to care for them, and notmany Indians even at the present time keep hogs. We did better withthe turkeys and chickens, but with these we did not have as good luckas white men do. With the cattle we have done very well indeed, and welike to raise them. We have a few horses also, and have had no badluck with them.In the matter of selling our stock and grain there has been muchmisunderstanding. The Indians understood that the cattle were to besold and the money given to them, but instead part of the money isgiven to the Indians and part of it is placed in what the officerscall the "Apache Fund." We have had five different officers in chargeof the Indians here and they have all ruled very much alike-notconsulting the Apaches or even explaining to them. It may be that theGovernment ordered the officers in charge to put this cattle moneyinto an Apache fund, for once I complained and told LieutenantPurington that I intended to report to the Government that he hadtaken some of my part of the cattle money and put it into the ApacheFund, he said he did not care if I did tell.Several years ago the issue of clothing ceased. This, too, may havebeen by the order of the Government, but the Apaches do not understandit.If there is an Apache Fund, it should some day be turned over to theIndians, or at least they should have an account of it, for it istheir earnings.When General Miles last visited Fort Sill I asked to be relieved fromlabor on account of my age. I also remembered what General Miles hadpromised me in the treaty and told him of it. He said I need not workany more except when I wished to, and since that time I have not beendetailed to do any work. I have worked a great deal, however, sincethen, for, although I am old, I like to work and help my people asmuch as I am able.18/21Unwritten Laws of the ApachesTRIALS When an Indian has been wronged by a member of his tribe hemay, if he does not wish to settle the difficulty personally, makecomplaint to the Chieftain. If he is unable to meet the offendingparties in a personal encounter, and disdains to make complaint,anyone may in his stead inform the chief of this conduct, and then itbecomes necessary to have an investigation or trial. Both the accusedand the accuser are entitled to witnesses, and their witnesses are notinterrupted in any way by questions, but simply say what they wish tosay in regard to the matter. The witnesses are not placed under oath,because it is not believed that they will give false testimony in amatter relating to their own people.The chief of the tribe presides during these trials, but if it is aserious offense he asks two or three leaders to sit with him. Thesesimply determine whether or not the man is guilty. If he is not guiltythe matter is ended, and the complaining party has forfeited his rightto take personal vengeance, for if he wishes to take vengeancehimself, he must object to the trial which would prevent it. If theaccused is found guilty the injured party fixes the penalty, which isgenerally confirmed by the chief and his associates.ADOPTION OF CHILDREN If any children are left orphans by the usage ofwar or otherwise, that is, if both parents are dead, the chief of thetribe may adopt them or give them away as he desires. In the case ofoutlawed Indians, they may, if they wish, take their children withthem, but if they leave the children with the tribe, the chief decideswhat will be done with them, but no disgrace attaches to the children."SALT LAKE" We obtained our salt from a little lake in the GilaMountains. This is a very small lake of clear, shallow water, and inthe center a small mound arises above the surface of the water. Thewater is too salty to drink, and the bottom of the lake is coveredwith a brown crust. When this crust is broken cakes of salt adhere toit. These cakes of salt may be washed clear in the water of this lake,but if washed in other water will dissolve.When visiting this lake our people were not allowed to even kill gameor attack an enemy. All creatures were free to go and come withoutmolestation.PREPARATION OF A WARRIOR To be admitted as a warrior a youth must havegone with the warriors of his tribe four separate times on the warpath.On the first trip he will be given only very inferior food. With thishe must be contented without murmuring. On none of the four trips ishe allowed to select his food as the warriors do, but must eat suchfood as he is permitted to have.On each of these expeditions he acts as servant, cares for the horses,cooks the food, and does whatever duties he should do without beingtold. He knows what things are to be done, and without waiting to betold is to do them. He is not allowed to speak to any warrior exceptin answer to questions or when told to speak.During these four wars he is expected to learn the sacred names ofeverything used in war, for after the tribe enters upon the war pathno common names are used in referring to anything appertaining to warin any way. War is a solemn religious matter.If, after four expeditions, all the warriors are satisfied that theyouth has been industrious, has not spoken out of order, has beendiscreet in all things, has shown courage in battle, has borne allhardships uncomplainingly, and has exhibited no color of cowardice, orweakness of any kind, he may by vote of the council be admitted as awarrior; but if any warrior objects to him upon any account he will besubjected to further tests, and if he meets these courageously, hisname may again be proposed. When he has proven beyond question that hecan bear hardships without complaint, and that he is a stranger tofear, he is admitted to the council of the warriors in the lowestrank. After this there is no formal test for promotions, but by commonconsent he assumes a station on the battlefield, and if that positionis maintained with honor, he is allowed to keep it, and may be asked,or may volunteer, to take a higher station, but no warrior wouldpresume to take a higher station unless he had assurance from theleaders of the tribe that his conduct in the first position was worthyof commendation.From this point upward the only election by the council in formalassembly is the election of the chief.Old men are not allowed to lead in battle, but their advice is alwaysrespected. Old age means loss of physical power and is fatal to activeleadership.DANCES All dances are considered religious ceremonies and are presidedover by a chief and medicine men. They are of a social or militarynature, but never without some sacred characteristic.A DANCE OF THANKSGIVING Every summer we would gather the fruit of theyucca, grind and pulverize it and mold it into cakes; then the tribewould be assembled to feast, to sing, and to give praises toUsen. Prayers of Thanksgiving were said by all. When the dance beganthe leaders bore these cakes and added words of praise occasionally tothe usual tone sounds of the music.THE WAR DANCE After a council of the warriors had deliberated, and hadprepared for the war path, the dance would be started. In this dancethere is the usual singing led by the warriors and accompanied withthe beating of the "esadadene," but the dancing is more violent, andyells and war whoops sometimes almost drown the music. Only warriorsparticipated in this dance.SCALP DANCE After a war party has returned, a modification of the wardance is held. The warriors who have brought scalps from the battlesexhibit them to the tribe, and when the dance begins these scalps,elevated on poles or spears, are carried around the camp fires whilethe dance is in progress. During this dance there is still some of thesolemnity of the war dance. There are yells and war-whoops, frequentlyaccompanied by discharge of firearms, but there is always more levitythan would be permitted at a war dance. After the scalp dance is overthe scalps are thrown away. No Apache would keep them, for they areconsidered defiling.A SOCIAL DANCE In the early part of September, 1905, I announced amongthe Apaches that my daughter, Eva, having attained womanhood, shouldnow put away childish things and assume her station as a younglady. At a dance of the tribe she would make her debut, and then, orthereafter, it would be proper for a warrior to seek her hand inmarriage. Accordingly, invitations were issued to all Apaches, andmany Comanches and Kiowas, to assemble for a grand dance on the greenby the south bank of Medicine Creek, near the village of Naiche,former chief of the Chokonen Apaches, on the first night of full moonin September. The festivities were to continue for two days andnights. Nothing was omitted in the preparation that would contributeto the enjoyment of the guests or the perfection of the observance ofthe religious rite.To make ready for the dancing the grass on a large circular space wasclosely mowed.The singing was led by Chief Naiche, and I, assisted by our medicinemen, directed the dance.First Eva advanced from among the women and danced once around thecamp fire; then, accompanied by another young woman, she againadvanced and both danced twice around the camp fire; then she and twoother young ladies advanced and danced three times around the campfire; the next time she and three other young ladies advanced anddanced four times around the camp fire; this ceremony lasted about onehour. Next the medicine men entered, stripped to the waist, theirbodies painted fantastically, and danced the sacred dances. They werefollowed by clown dancers who amused the audience greatly.Then the members of the tribe joined hands and danced in a circlearound the camp fire for a long time. All the friends of the tribewere asked to take part in this dance, and when it was ended many ofthe old people retired, and the "lovers' dance" began.The warriors stood in the middle of the circle and the ladies,two-and-two, danced forward and designated some warrior to dance withthem. The dancing was back and forth on a line from the center to theouter edge of the circle. The warrior faced the two ladies, and whenthey danced forward to the center he danced backward: then they dancedbackward to the outer edge and he followed facing them. This lastedtwo or three hours and then the music changed. Immediately thewarriors assembled again in the center of the circle, and this timeeach lady selected a warrior as a partner. The manner of dancing wasas before, only two instead of three danced together. During thisdance, which continued until daylight, the warrior (if dancing with amaiden) could propose marriage, and if the maiden agreed, he wouldconsult her father soon afterward and make a bargain for her.Upon all such occasions as this, when the dance is finished, eachwarrior gives a present to the lady who selected him for a partner anddanced with him. If she is satisfied with the present he says good-by,if not, the matter is referred to someone in authority (medicine manor chief), who determines the question of what is a proper gift.For a married lady the value of the present should be two or threedollars; for a maiden the present should have a value of not less thanfive dollars. Often, however, the maiden receives a very valuablepresent.During the "lovers' dance" the medicine men mingle with the dancers tokeep out evil spirits.Perhaps I shall never again have cause to assemble our people todance, but these social dances in the moonlight have been a large partof our enjoyment in the past, and I think they will not soon bediscontinued, at least I hope not.19/21At the World's FairWHEN I was at first asked to attend the St. Louis World's Fair I didnot wish to go. Later, when I was told that I would receive goodattention and protection, and that the President of the United Statessaid that it would be all right, I consented. I was kept by parties incharge of the Indian Department, who had obtained permission from thePresident. I stayed in this place for six months. I sold myphotographs for twenty-five cents, and was allowed to keep ten centsof this for myself. I also wrote my name for ten, fifteen, ortwenty-five cents, as the case might be, and kept all of that money. Ioften made as much as two dollars a day, and when I returned I hadplenty of money -more than I had ever owned before.Many people in St. Louis invited me to come to their homes, but mykeeper always refused. Every Sunday the President of the Fair sent forme to go to a wild west show. I took part in the roping contestsbefore the audience. There were many other Indian tribes there, andstrange people of whom I had never heard.Geronimo rides a Cadillac at the World Fair When people first came tothe World's Fair they did nothing but parade up and down thestreets. When they got tired of this they would visit the shows. Therewere many strange things in these shows. The Government sent guardswith me when I went, and I was not allowed to go anywhere withoutthem.In one of the shows some strange men with red caps had some peculiarswords, and they seemed to want to fight. Finally their manager toldthem they might fight each other. They tried to hit each other overthe head with these swords, and I expected both to be wounded orperhaps killed, but neither one was harmed. They would be hard peopleto kill in a hand-to-hand fight.In another show there was a strange-looking negro. The manager tiedhis hands fast, then tied him to a chair. He was securely tied, for Ilooked myself, and I did not think it was possible for him to getaway. Then the manager told him to get loose.He twisted in his chair for a moment, and then stood up; the ropeswere still tied but he was free. I do not understand how this wasdone. It was certainly a miraculous power, because no man could havereleased himself by his own efforts.In another place a man was on a platform speaking to the audience;they set a basket by the side of the platform and covered it with redcalico; then a woman came and got into the basket, and a man coveredthe basket again with the calico; then the man who was speaking to theaudience took a long sword and ran it through the basket, each way,and then down through the cloth cover. I heard the sword cut throughthe woman's body, and the manager himself said she was dead; but whenthe cloth was lifted from the basket she stepped out, smiled, andwalked off the stage. I would like to know how she was so quicklyhealed, and why the wounds did not kill her.I have never considered bears very intelligent, except in their wildhabits, but I had never before seen a white bear. In one of the showsa man had a white bear that was as intelligent as a man. He would dowhatever he was told -carry a log on his shoulder, just as a manwould; then, when he was told, would put it down again. He did manyother things, and seemed to know exactly what his keeper said tohim. I am sure that no grizzly bear could be trained to do thesethings.One time the guards took me into a little house that had fourwindows. When we were seated the little house started to move alongthe ground. Then the guards called my attention to some curious thingsthey had in their pockets. Finally they told me to look out, and whenI did so I was scared, for our little house had gone high up in theair, and the people down in the Fair Grounds looked no larger thanants. The men laughed at me for being scared; then they gave me aglass to look through (I often had such glasses which I took from deadofficers after battles in Mexico and elsewhere), and I could seerivers, lakes and mountains. But I had never been so high in the air,and I tried to look into the sky. There were no stars, and I could notlook at the sun through this glass because the brightness hurt myeyes. Finally I put the glass down, and as they were all laughing atme, I, too, began to laugh. Then they said, "Get out!" and when Ilooked we were on the street again. After we were safe on the land Iwatched many of these little houses going up and coming down, but Icannot understand how they travel. They are very curious littlehouses.One day we went into another show, and as soon as we were in it, itchanged into night. It was real night, for I could feel the damp air;soon it began to thunder, and the lightnings flashed; it was reallightning, too, for it struck just above our heads. I dodged andwanted to run away but I could not tell which way to go in order toget out. The guards motioned me to keep still and so I stayed. Infront of us were some strange little people who came out on theplatform; then I looked up again and the clouds were all gone, and Icould see stars shining. The little people on the platform did notseem in earnest about anything they did; so I only laughed atthem. All the people around where we sat seemed to be laughing at me.We went into another place and the manager took us into a little roomthat was made like a cage; then everything around us seemed to bemoving; soon the air looked blue, then there were black clouds movingwith the wind. Pretty soon it was clear outside; then we saw a fewthin white clouds; then the clouds grew thicker, and it rained andhailed with thunder and lightning. Then the thunder retreated and arainbow appeared in the distance; then it became dark, the moon roseand thousands of stars came out. Soon the sun came up, and we got outof the little room. This was a good show, but it was so strange andunnatural that I was glad to be on the streets again.We went into one place where they made glassware. I had always thoughtthat these things were made by hand, but they are not. The man had acurious little instrument, and whenever he would blow through thisinto a little blaze the glass would take any shape he wanted it to. Iam not sure, but I think that if I had this kind of an instrument Icould make whatever I wished. There seems to be a charm about it. ButI suppose it is very difficult to get these little instruments, orpeople would have them. The people in this show were so anxious to buythe things the man made that they kept him so busy he could not sitdown all day long. I bought many curious things in there and broughtthem home with me.At the end of one of the streets some people were getting into aclumsy canoe, upon a kind of shelf, and sliding down into thewater. They seemed to enjoy it, but it looked too fierce for me. Ifone of these canoes had gone out of its path the people would havebeen sure to get hurt or killed.There were some little brown people at the Fair that United Statestroops captured recently on some islands far away from here.They did not wear much clothing, and I think that they should not havebeen allowed to come to the Fair. But they themselves did not seem toknow any better. They had some little brass plates, and they tried toplay music with these, but I did not think it was music it was only arattle. However, they danced to this noise and seemed to think theywere giving a fine show.I do not know how true the report was, but I heard that the Presidentsent them to the Fair so that they could learn some manners, and whenthey went home teach their people how to dress and how to behave.I am glad I went to the Fair. I saw many interesting things andlearned much of the white people. They are a very kind and peacefulpeople. During all the time I was at the Fair no one tried to harm mein any way. Had this been among the Mexicans I am sure I should havebeen compelled to defend myself often.I wish all my people could have attended the Fair.20/21ReligionIn our primitive worship only our relations to Usen and the members ofour tribe were considered as appertaining to our religiousresponsibilities. As to the future state, the teachings of our tribewere not specific, that is, we had no definite idea of our relationsand surroundings in after life. We believed that there is a life afterthis one, but no one ever told me as to what part of man lived afterdeath. I have seen many men die; I have seen many human bodiesdecayed, but I have never seen that part which is called the spirit; Ido not know what it is; nor have I yet been able to understand thatpart of the Christian religion. We held that the discharge of one'sduty would make his future life more pleasant, but whether that futurelife was worse than this life or better, we did not know, and no onewas able to tell us. We hoped that in the future life family andtribal relations would be resumed. In a way we believed this, but wedid not know it.Once when living in San Carlos Reservation an Indian told me thatwhile lying unconscious on the battlefield he had actually been dead,and had passed into the spirit land.Geronimo at old age First he came to a mulberry tree growing out froma cave in the ground. Before this cave a guard was stationed, but whenhe approached without fear the guard let him pass. He descended intothe cave, and a little way back the path widened and terminated in aperpendicular rock many hundreds of feet wide and equal inheight. There was not much light, but by peering directly beneath himhe discovered a pile of sand reaching from the depths below to withintwenty feet of the top of the rock where he stood. Holding to a bush,he swung off from the edge of the rock and dropped onto the sand,sliding rapidly down its steep side into the darkness. He landed in anarrow passage running due westward through a canyon which graduallygrew lighter and lighter until he could see as well as if it had beendaylight; but there was no sun. Finally he came to a section of thispassage that was wider for a short distance, and then closing abruptlycontinued in a narrow path; just where this section narrowed two hugeserpents were coiled, and rearing their heads, hissed at him as heapproached, but he showed no fear, and as soon as he came close tothem they withdrew quietly and let him pass. At the next place, wherethe passage opened into a wider section, were two grizzly bearsprepared to attack him, but when he approached and spoke to them theystood aside and he passed unharmed. He continued to follow the narrowpassage, and the third time it widened and two mountain lions crouchedin the way, but when he had approached them without fear and hadspoken to them they also withdrew. He again entered the narrowpassage. For some time he followed this emerging into a fourth sectionbeyond which he could see nothing: the further walls of this sectionwere clashing together at regular intervals with tremendous sounds,but when he approached them they stood apart until he hadpassed. After this he seemed to be in a forest, and following thenatural draws which led westward soon came into a green valley wherethere were many Indians camped and plenty of game. He said that he sawand recognized many whom he had known in this life, and that he wassorry when he was brought back to consciousness.I told him if I knew this to be true I would not want to live anotherday, but by some means, if by my own hands, I would die in order toenjoy these pleasures. I myself have lain unconscious on thebattlefield, and while in that condition have had some strangethoughts or experiences; but they are very dim and I cannot recallthem well enough to relate them. Many Indians believed this warrior,and I cannot say that he did not tell the truth. I wish I knew thatwhat he said is beyond question true. But perhaps it is as well thatwe are not certain.Since my life as a prisoner has begun I have heard the teachings ofthe white man's religion, and in many respects believe it to be betterthan the religion of my fathers. However, I have always prayed, and Ibelieve that the Almighty has always protected me.Believing that in a wise way it is good to go to church, and thatassociating with Christians would improve my character, I have adoptedthe Christian religion. I believe that the church has helped me muchduring the short time I have been a member. I am not ashamed to be aChristian, and I am glad to know that the President of the UnitedStates is a Christian, for without the help of the Almighty I do notthink he could rightly judge in ruling so many people. I have advisedall of my people who are not Christians, to study that religion,because it seems to me the best religion in enabling one to liveright.21/21Hopes for the FutureI am thankful that the President Of the United States has given mepermission to tell my story. I hope that he and those in authorityunder him will read my story and judge whether my people have beenrightly treated.There is a great question between the Apache and the Government. Fortwenty years we have been held prisoners of war under a treaty whichwas made with General Miles, on the part of the United StatesGovernment, and myself as the representative of the Apaches. Thattreaty has not at all times been properly observed by the Government,although at the present time it is being more nearly fulfilled ontheir part the heretofore. In the treaty with General Miles we agreedto go to a place outside of Arizona and learn to live as the whitepeople do. I think that my people are now capable of living inaccordance with the laws of the United States, and we would, ofcourse, like to have the liberty to return to that land which is oursby divine right. We are reduced in numbers, and having learned how tocultivate the soil would not require so much ground as was formerlynecessary. We do not ask all of the land which the Almighty gave us inthe beginning, but that we may have sufficient lands there tocultivate. What we do not need we are glad for the white men tocultivate.We are now held on Comanche and Kiowa lands, which are not suited toour needs-these lands and this climate are suited to the Indians whooriginally inhabited this country, of course, but our people aredecreasing in numbers here, and will continue to decrease unless theyare allowed to return to their native land. Such a result isinevitable.Geronimo rides a Cadillac at the World Fair There is no climate orsoil which, to my mind, is equal to that of Arizona. We could haveplenty of good cultivating land, plenty of grass, plenty of timber andplenty of minerals in that land which the Almighty created for theApaches. It is my land, my home, my fathers' land, to which I now askto be allowed to return. I want to spend my last days there, and beburied among those mountains. If this could be I might die in peace,feeling that my people, placed in their native homes, would increasein numbers, rather than diminish as at present, and that our namewould not become extinct.I know that if my people were placed in that mountainous region lyingaround the head waters of the Gila River they would live in peace andact according to the will of the President. They would be prosperousand happy in tilling the soil and learning the civilization of thewhite men, whom they now respect. Could I but see this accomplished, Ithink I could forget all the wrongs that I have ever received, and diea contented and happy old man. But we can do nothing in this matterourselves-we must wait until those in authority choose to act. If thiscannot be done during my lifetime-if I must die in bondage- I hopethat the remnant of the Apache tribe may, when I am gone, be grantedthe one privilege which they request-to return to Arizona.