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gcd?
File: /projects/sage/sage-7.3/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/sage/arith/misc.py
Signature : gcd(a, b=None, **kwds)
Docstring :
The greatest common divisor of a and b, or if a is a list and b is
omitted the greatest common divisor of all elements of a.

INPUT:

* "a,b" - two elements of a ring with gcd or

* "a" - a list or tuple of elements of a ring with gcd

Additional keyword arguments are passed to the respectively called
methods.

OUTPUT:

The given elements are first coerced into a common parent. Then,
their greatest common divisor *in that common parent* is returned.

EXAMPLES:

   sage: GCD(97,100)
   1
   sage: GCD(97*10^15, 19^20*97^2)
   97
   sage: GCD(2/3, 4/5)
   2/15
   sage: GCD([2,4,6,8])
   2
   sage: GCD(srange(0,10000,10))  # fast  !!
   10

Note that to take the gcd of n elements for n not= 2 you must put
the elements into a list by enclosing them in "[..]".  Before #4988
the following wrongly returned 3 since the third parameter was just
ignored:

   sage: gcd(3,6,2)
   Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
   TypeError: gcd() takes at most 2 arguments (3 given)
   sage: gcd([3,6,2])
   1

Similarly, giving just one element (which is not a list) gives an
error:

   sage: gcd(3)
   Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
   TypeError: 'sage.rings.integer.Integer' object is not iterable

By convention, the gcd of the empty list is (the integer) 0:

   sage: gcd([])
   0
   sage: type(gcd([]))
   <type 'sage.rings.integer.Integer'>
help(euler_phi)
Help on instance of Euler_Phi in module sage.arith.misc: class Euler_Phi | Return the value of the Euler phi function on the integer n. We | defined this to be the number of positive integers <= n that are | relatively prime to n. Thus if n<=0 then | ``euler_phi(n)`` is defined and equals 0. | | INPUT: | | | - ``n`` - an integer | | | EXAMPLES:: | | sage: euler_phi(1) | 1 | sage: euler_phi(2) | 1 | sage: euler_phi(3) | 2 | sage: euler_phi(12) | 4 | sage: euler_phi(37) | 36 | | Notice that euler_phi is defined to be 0 on negative numbers and | 0. | | :: | | sage: euler_phi(-1) | 0 | sage: euler_phi(0) | 0 | sage: type(euler_phi(0)) | <type 'sage.rings.integer.Integer'> | | We verify directly that the phi function is correct for 21. | | :: | | sage: euler_phi(21) | 12 | sage: [i for i in range(21) if gcd(21,i) == 1] | [1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20] | | The length of the list of integers 'i' in range(n) such that the | gcd(i,n) == 1 equals euler_phi(n). | | :: | | sage: len([i for i in range(21) if gcd(21,i) == 1]) == euler_phi(21) | True | | The phi function also has a special plotting method. | | :: | | sage: P = plot(euler_phi, -3, 71) | | AUTHORS: | | - William Stein | | - Alex Clemesha (2006-01-10): some examples | | Methods defined here: | | __call__(self, n) | Calls the euler_phi function. | | EXAMPLES:: | | sage: Euler_Phi()(10) | 4 | sage: Euler_Phi()(720) | 192 | | __repr__(self) | Returns a string describing this class. | | EXAMPLES:: | | sage: Euler_Phi().__repr__() | 'Number of positive integers <=n but relatively prime to n' | | plot(self, xmin=1, xmax=50, pointsize=30, rgbcolor=(0, 0, 1), join=True, **kwds) | Plot the Euler phi function. | | INPUT: | | | - ``xmin`` - default: 1 | | - ``xmax`` - default: 50 | | - ``pointsize`` - default: 30 | | - ``rgbcolor`` - default: (0,0,1) | | - ``join`` - default: True; whether to join the | points. | | - ``**kwds`` - passed on | | EXAMPLES:: | | sage: p = Euler_Phi().plot() | sage: p.ymax() | 46.0

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